Michael A. Bernstein

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Whenever a linear gradient is activated, concomitant magnetic fields with non-linear spatial dependence result. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, i.e., within the imaging volume the magnetic field must have zero divergence, and has negligible curl. The concomitant, or Maxwell field has been described in the MRI literature for over 10 years. In(More)
Three encoding strategies for the measurement of flow velocities in arbitrary directions with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging are presented; their noise and dynamic range performance are compared by means of theoretical analysis and computer simulation. A six-point measurement strategy is shown to be quite inefficient in terms of velocity variance(More)
We present a reconstruction method for phased array multicoil data that is compatible with phase contrast MR angiography. The proposed algorithm can produce either complex difference or phase difference angiograms. Directional flow and quantitative information are preserved with the phase difference reconstruction. The proposed method is computationally(More)
Maxwell's equations imply that imaging gradients are accompanied by higher order spatially varying fields (concomitant fields) that can cause artifacts in MR imaging. The lowest order concomitant fields depend quadratically on the imaging gradient amplitude and inversely on the static field strength. Time-varying concomitant fields that accompany the(More)
It has been observed that fast spin-echo (FSE) images with a large field of view (>40 cm) in certain directions exhibit unusual ghosting artifacts that cannot be eliminated with existing ghost removal methods. These artifacts have been related to a higher-order magnetic field perturbation (known as the concomitant field, or Maxwell field) concomitant to the(More)
When a linear magnetic field gradient is used, spatially higher-order magnetic fields are produced to satisfy the Maxwell equations. It has been observed that the higher-order magnetic field produced by the readout gradient causes axial echo planar images acquired with a horizontal solenoid magnet to shift along the phase-encoding direction and lose image(More)
A method for minimizing field-echo delay in moment-nulled gradient-echo imaging is presented. Even though ramps are accounted for, the analysis yields simple closed-form solutions. The method is then generalized to the section-select waveform for three-dimensional volume imaging and to flow encoding for phase-contrast imaging. Three strategies for(More)
A novel data-evaluation procedure for the automatic atom to peak or multiplet assignment of 1H-NMR spectra of small molecules has been developed using a fast and robust expert system. The applicability and reliability of the method are demonstrated by comparison of a manually assigned database of 1H-NMR spectra with the assignments produced by the automatic(More)
Drugs and drug candidates containing a carboxylic acid moiety, including many widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often metabolized to form acyl glucuronides (AGs). NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen are amongst the most widely used drugs on the market, whereas similar carboxylic acid drugs such as Suprofen have been withdrawn due to(More)