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With a view to identifying the neurotransmitter content of retinal terminals within the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus, a highly specific antiserum to glutaraldehyde-coupled glutamate was used in a postembedding immunogold procedure at the ultrastructural level. Retinal terminals were identified by cholera toxin--horseradish peroxidase transported(More)
Suprachiasmatic nuclei, derived from neonate rats, were maintained for several weeks in stationary organotypic culture. Hypothalamic slice explants, supported by Millicell filters and incubated in Petri dishes containing serum-based medium, flattened appreciably, yet preserved the organization of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the surrounding hypothalamic(More)
Pentobarbital microinjected into a restricted locus in the upper brainstem induces a general anesthesia-like state characterized by atonia, loss of consciousness, and pain suppression as assessed by loss of nocifensive response to noxious stimuli. This locus is the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA). Although anesthetic agents directly influence(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives glutamatergic afferents from the retina and serotonergic afferents from the midbrain, and serotonin (5-HT) can modify the response of the SCN circadian oscillator to light. 5-HT1B receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition has been proposed as one mechanism by which 5-HT modifies retinal input to the SCN (Pickard et(More)
Melanopsin is a novel opsin synthesized in a small subset of retinal ganglion cells. Ganglion cells expressing melanopsin are capable of depolarizing in response to light in the absence of rod or cone input and are thus intrinsically light sensitive. Melanopsin ganglion cells convey information regarding general levels of environmental illumination to the(More)
The sites of exocytosis by dense-cored vesicles (DCVs) from neurones in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were studied at the ultrastructural level. The tannic acid procedure, which stabilizes extruded proteinaceous substances, was used to demonstrate exocytosis of DCV cores. Fresh brian slices containing the SCN were incubated in media containing high(More)
The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary mammalian circadian clock that regulates rhythmic physiology and behavior. The SCN is composed of a diverse set of neurons arranged in a tight intrinsic network. In the rat, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-containing neurons are the dominant cell(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a circadian oscillator and biological clock. Cell-to-cell communication is important for synchronization among SCN neuronal oscillators and the great majority of SCN neurons use GABA as a neurotransmitter, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult CNS. Acting via the ionotropic GABA(A) receptor, a chloride(More)