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Induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance are important mechanisms to maintain the balance of the immune system. In addition to the deletion of T cells and their failure to respond in certain circumstances, active suppression mediated by T cells or T-cell factors has been proposed as a mechanism for maintaining peripheral tolerance. However, the(More)
Recent findings have thrust poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) into the limelight as potential chemotherapeutic targets. To provide a framework for understanding these recent observations, we review what is known about the structures and functions of the family of PARP enzymes, and then outline a series of questions that should be addressed to guide the(More)
The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A gene is a major biotransformation gene involved in the metabolism of a vast array of molecules. Recently, we uncovered a new series of alternative spliced isoforms referred to as isoforms 2 or UGT1As_i2 that use an alternative exon 5 (5b). The function of such mRNAs and the corresponding 45 kDa proteins still remains(More)
It is now well established that, in mammals, sulfate conjugation constitutes an important reaction in the transformation of xenobiotics and in the modulation of the biological activity of steroid hormones and neurotransmitter. The presence of a sulfate group on some molecules can also be a prerequisite for their biological function. For example, it is well(More)
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and growth factor stimuli are both required for optimal control of cell proliferation. In the context of skin injury, cell-derived fibronectin and platelet-derived growth factor play important roles in the stimulation of cell proliferation and migration, activities that are crucial to the healing process. To assess the(More)
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes covalently modify glutamic, aspartic and lysine amino acid side chains of acceptor proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) units. The poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) polymers formed alter the physico-chemical(More)
Recent discoveries from brassinosteroid-deficient mutants led to the recognition that plants, like animals, use steroids to regulate their growth and development. We describe the characterization of one member of a Brassica napus sulfotransferase gene family coding for an enzyme that catalyzes the O-sulfonation of brassinosteroids and of mammalian(More)
Chromatin undergoes a rapid ATP-dependent, ATM and H2AX-independent decondensation when DNA damage is introduced by laser microirradiation. Although the detailed mechanism of this decondensation remains to be determined, the kinetics of decondensation are similar to the kinetics of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. We used laser microirradiation to introduce DNA(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a primary role in the process of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This posttranslational modification of nuclear proteins is activated in response to DNA damage. Having been studied for more than 30 years, PARP-1 is now known to be implicated in several crucial cellular processes: DNA replication, transcription, DNA(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 3 (PARP-3) is a novel member of the PARP family of enzymes that synthesize poly(ADP-ribose) on themselves and other acceptor proteins. Very little is known about this PARP, which is closely related to PARP-1 and PARP-2. By sequence analysis, we find that PARP-3 may be expressed in two isoforms which we studied in more detail to(More)