Michèle Carnaud

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Caspr/paranodin, a neuronal transmembrane glycoprotein, is essential for the structure and function of septate-like paranodal axoglial junctions at nodes of Ranvier. A closely related protein, Caspr2, is concentrated in juxtaparanodal regions where it associates indirectly with the shaker-type potassium channels. Although ultrastructural studies indicate(More)
The K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 plays an essential role in neuronal chloride homeostasis, and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling. Although KCC2 is expressed throughout the somatodendritic membrane, it is remarkably enriched in dendritic spines, which host most glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons. KCC2 has been shown to(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is activated following integrin engagement or stimulation of transmembrane receptors. Autophosphorylation of FAK on Tyr-397 is a critical event, allowing binding of Src family kinases and activation of signal transduction pathways. Tissue-specific alternative splicing generates several isoforms of FAK with different(More)
Schwannomin/merlin is the product of a tumor suppressor gene mutated in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Although the consequences of NF2 mutations on Schwann cell proliferation are well established, the physiological role of schwannomin in differentiated cells is not known. To unravel this role, we studied peripheral nerves in mice overexpressing in Schwann(More)
Neurons are characterized by extremely long axons. This exceptional cell shape is likely to depend on multiple factors including interactions between the cytoskeleton and membrane proteins. In many cell types, members of the protein 4.1 family play an important role in tethering the cortical actin-spectrin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. Protein 4.1B(More)
Nodes of Ranvier correspond to specialized axonal domains where voltage-gated sodium channels are highly concentrated. In the peripheral nervous system, they are covered by Schwann cells microvilli, where three homologous cytoskeletal-associated proteins, ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM proteins) have been found, to be enriched. These glial processes are(More)
Hindlimb unloading (HU) is known to induce changes in the neuromuscular system. However, no data describing the effects of HU on morphological characteristics of peripheral nerve have been reported so far. Therefore, we used soleus and radial nerves obtained from control and rats submitted to 14 days of HU to study the consequences of a decrease (soleus) or(More)
The function of myelinated fibers depends on the clustering of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier, the integrity of the myelin sheath, and the existence of tight axoglial junctions at paranodes, on either sides of the nodes. While the ultrastructure of these regions has been known for several decades, recent progress has been accomplished in the(More)
Neuronal activity modulates the membrane diffusion of postsynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs), thereby regulating the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. The K289M mutation in GABA(A)Rs subunit γ2 has been associated with the generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) syndrome. This mutation accelerates receptor(More)
Axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier (NRs) are essential regions for saltatory conduction of the action potential along the axon. These two domains are enriched in similar multimolecular complexes, which include voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)), NF186 (neurofascin 186), NrCAM (neuron glia-related cell adhesion molecule), and cytoskeleton(More)