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A novel method for performing exponentiation modulo 2 k is described. The algorithm has a critical path consisting of k dependent shift-and-add modulo 2 k operations. Although 3 is the preferred exponent base, the algorithm can be extended easily in order to perform the general binary powering operation. Introduction and background: The basic integer(More)
We present an empirical investigation into the prevalence and impact of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks on operators in the Bitcoin economy. To that end, we gather and analyze posts mentioning " DDoS " on the popular Bitcoin forum bitcointalk.org. Starting from around 3 000 different posts made between May 2011 and October 2013, we document 142(More)
A novel algorithm for computing the discrete logarithm modulo 2 k that is suitable for fast software or hardware implementation is described. The chosen preferred implementation is based on a linear-time multiplier-less method and has a critical path of less than k modulo 2 k shift-and-add operations. Introduction and summary: Hardware capabilities for(More)
A technique to detect and realize a parity logic function using a linear number of spectral coeecients is presented. Recent advances in computation methods for the spectra of a Boolean function have resulted in the determination of a single coeecient very ee-ciently. The use of a small set of spectral coeecients ooers low cost and attractive alternatives to(More)
A Boolean function may be uniquely represented by a complete spectral vector or a truth table. The former generally provides global information regarding functional behavior over all or a subset of inputs while the latter provides local information specifying functional behavior for a specific set of variable valuations. Various forms of output(More)
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