Micah Henry Clark

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Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article presents a(More)
The assumption of strongly ignorable treatment assignment is required for eliminating selection bias in observational studies. To meet this assumption, researchers often rely on a strategy of selecting covariates that they think will control for selection bias. Theory indicates that the most important covariates are those highly correlated with both the(More)
If, as hypothesized, neuroactive peptides from grain glutens are the major agents evoking schizophrenia in those with the genotype(s), it should be rare if grain is rare. To test this, we analyzed the results of our clinical examinations (e.g., kuru) and observations of anthropologists on peoples consuming little or no grain. Only two overtly insane chronic(More)
There is a recognized need to employ autonomous agents in domains that are not amenable to conventional automation and/or which humans find difficult, dangerous, or undesirable to perform. These include time-critical and mission-critical applications in health, defense, transportation, and industry, where the consequences of failure can be catastrophic. A(More)
Blue-pill robots are engineered to deceive (perhaps in an attempt to secure desirable ends). Red-pill robots, on the other hand, are built to do no violence to truth. While “taking the blue pill” is an option some select, this path, in the context of present and future robotics, is an exceedingly bad one by our lights, and we herein defend(More)
The concept of common ground — the mutual understanding of context and conventions — is central to philosophical accounts of mendacity; its use is to determine the meaning of linguistic expressions and the significance of physical acts, and to distinguish certain statements as conveying a conventional promise, warranty , or expectation of sincerity. Lying(More)
This paper examines how pretest measures of a study outcome reduce selection bias in observational studies in education. The theoretical rationale for privileging pretests in bias control is that they are often highly correlated with the outcome, and in many contexts, they are also highly correlated with the selection process. To examine the pretest's role(More)
Courtesy of experiments carried out by such thinkers as Wason, Johnson-Laird, and Kahneman & Tversky, there is overwhelming empirical evidence that the vast majority of logically untrained humans are unable to reason in context-independent, normatively correct fashion. However, the multi-mind effect, which is predicted by our earlier success at teaching(More)