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Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are frequently comorbid states. Vasodilator actions of insulin are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways that stimulate production of nitric oxide from vascular endothelium. This helps to couple metabolic and hemodynamic homeostasis under healthy conditions. In pathologic(More)
CONTEXT Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, and its metabolite hesperetin may have vascular actions relevant to their health benefits. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of hesperetin actions are unknown. OBJECTIVE We tested whether hesperetin stimulates production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium and evaluated endothelial function in(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome importantly accelerates the atherosclerotic process, the earliest event of which is endothelial dysfunction. Ghrelin, a gastric peptide with cardiovascular actions, has been shown to inhibit proatherogenic changes in experimental models. This study therefore investigated whether ghrelin administration might beneficially affect(More)
Endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory markers are among the earliest detectable abnormalities in people at risk for atherosclerosis. Accelerated atherosclerosis is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, a complex genetic disorder. Therefore, we hypothesized that(More)
OBJECTIVE Offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes (OPDs) exhibits endothelial dysfunction (ED) associated with a chronic inflammatory state. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are beneficial for cardiovascular and metabolic health. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis(More)
OBJECTIVE In a previous study we identified metallothionein (MT) as a candidate gene potentially influencing collaterogenesis. In this investigation, we determined the effect of MT on collaterogenesis and examined the mechanisms contributing to the effects we found. METHODS AND RESULTS Collateral blood flow recovery was assessed using laser Doppler(More)
Recent studies showed that chronic administration of losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist, improved skeletal muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. In this study, C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd(mdx)/J female mice were either untreated or treated with losartan (n = 15) in the drinking water at a dose of 600 mg/L over a 6-month period. Cardiac(More)
Hypomagnesemia continues to be a significant clinical disorder that is present in patients with diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, and treatment with magnesuric drugs (diuretics, cancer chemotherapy agents, etc.). To determine the role of magnesium in cardiovascular pathophysiology, we have used dietary restriction of this cation in animal models. This review(More)
Hypertensive patients have increased endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone. This abnormality, however, might not be uniformly present in all forms of hypertension, as suggested by experimental studies showing that endothelin-1 activity is enhanced predominantly in low-renin, high-volume models and in insulin-resistant states. Because hypertension in(More)
BACKGROUND Dmd(mdx) (mdx) mice are used as a genetic and biochemical model of dystrophin deficiency. The long-term consequences of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on dystrophin-deficient skeletal and heart muscle are not yet known. Here we used systematic phenotyping to assess the long-term consequences of GC treatment in mdx mice. Our investigation addressed(More)