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Conditioned stimuli (CSs) previously associated with heroin are critically involved in activating long-lasting relapse and compulsive drug seeking. This study examined the magnitude of heroin seeking induced by drug-related cues in relation to the total amount of drug exposure during training. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group) were trained(More)
Environmental stimuli and conditioned cues associated with heroin can induce drug-seeking behavior, but how heroin lapse interacts with cues is unclear. Rats were trained to nose-poke for i.v. heroin for 14 days and then tested for heroin seeking after withdrawal from heroin self-administration. Heroin seeking induced by cues persisted over several weeks(More)
Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), an enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increases intracellular cAMP/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signaling. Activation of this signaling is considered as an important compensatory response that decreases motivational properties of drugs of abuse. However, it is(More)
A high incidence of relapse can be triggered by exposure to conditioned cues previously associated with heroin. Extended access to drug and withdrawal are thought to affect the motivation for drug seeking. The present study evaluated how different periods of training to self-administer heroin and different periods of withdrawal affected drug seeking.(More)
Conditioned environmental stimuli are known to be important determinants of drug seeking behavior. c-Fos, the protein product of the protooncogene c-Fos, is expressed in neurons when there are drug-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behaviour. Therefore, its expression could serve as a marker of regional neuronal activation. Using an(More)
Clinical and animal studies have indicated that propofol has potential for abuse, but the specific neurobiological mechanism underlying propofol reward is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathways in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in propofol(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with risperidone on heroin self-administration and heroin-seeking behaviour induced by cues and heroin priming. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a fixed ratio 1 schedule for 2 wk and nose-poke responding was extinguished for 10 d, after which reinstatement of drug(More)
Augmentation of extinction with learning enhancing therapy may offer an effective strategy to combat heroin relapse. Our lab previously found that electroacupuncture (EA) not only significantly reduced cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking but also exhibited a promoting effect on the ability of learning and memory. In the present study, we further(More)
Relapse to drug seeking was studied using a rodent model of reinstatement induced by exposure to drug-related cues. Here, we used intravenous drug self-administration procedures in rats to further investigate the beneficial effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on heroin-seeking behavior in a reinstatement model of relapse. We trained Sprague-Dawley rats to(More)
Vagus nerve stimulation has been used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy. However, little is known whether it is also effective for the treatment of heroin dependence, in particular for relapse to heroin seeking. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vagus nerve stimulation on reinstatement (relapse) of(More)