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The ESX-1 secretion system plays a critical role in the virulence of M. tuberculosis and M. marinum, but the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms are not clearly defined. Virulent M. marinum is able to escape from the Mycobacterium-containing vacuole (MCV) into the host cell cytosol, polymerize actin, and spread from cell to cell. In this study, we(More)
Microeconomics-inspired spectrum auctions can dramatically improve the spectrum utilization for wireless networks to satisfy the ever increasing service demands. However, the back-room dealing (i.e., the frauds of the insincere auctioneer and the bid-rigging between the greedy bidders and the auctioneer) poses significant security challenges, and fails all(More)
Recently intensive efforts have been made on the transformation of the world's largest physical system, the power grid, into a “smart grid” by incorporating extensive information and communication infrastructures. Key features in such a “smart grid” include high penetration of renewable and distributed energy sources, large-scale(More)
Sensor-enabled RFID technology has generated a lot of interest from industries lately. Integrated with miniaturized sensors, RFID tags could provide not only the IDs but also valuable real-time information about the state of the corresponding objects or the surrounding environment, which is beneficial to many practical applications, such as warehouse(More)
Chromosomal DNA replication requires the spatial and temporal coordination of the activities of several complexes that constitute the replisome. A previously uncharacterized protein, encoded by TK1252 in the archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis, was shown to stably interact with the archaeal GINS complex in vivo, a central component of the archaeal(More)
PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) is a ring-shaped protein that encircles duplex DNA and plays an essential role in many DNA metabolic processes. The PCNA protein interacts with a large number of cellular factors and modulates their enzymatic activities. In the present paper, we summarize the structures, functions and interactions of the archaeal(More)
The essential impediment to apply cognitive radio (eR) technology for spectrum utilization improvement lies in the uncertainty of licensed spectrum supply. In this paper, we investigate the joint routing and link scheduling problem of multi­ hop eR networks under uncertain spectrum supply. We model the vacancy of licensed bands with a series of random(More)
This paper studies the optimization problem of minimizing resource rental cost for running elastic applications in cloud while meeting application service requirements. Such a problem arises when excessive generated data incurs significant monetary cost on transfer and inventory in cloud. The goal of planning is to make resource rental decisions in response(More)
In this paper, we investigate the minimization of the total energy cost of multiple residential households in a smart grid neighborhood sharing a load serving entity. Specifically, each household may have renewable generation, energy storage as well as inelastic and elastic energy loads, and the load serving entity attempts to coordinate the energy(More)
The essential impediment to apply cognitive radio (CR) technology for efficient spectrum utilization lies in the uncertainty of licensed spectrum supply. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture for spectrum harvesting and sharing, and investigate the joint routing and frequency scheduling problem in multi-hop cognitive radio networks (CRNs) under(More)