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BACKGROUND Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia has been implicated in delirium. Suppression of microglial activation may therefore contribute to alleviate delirium. It has been reported that dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a potent anti-inflammatory property. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DEX on the production of proinflammatory(More)
Resuscitated hemorrhagic shock is believed to promote the development of acute lung injury (ALI) by priming the immune system for an exaggerated inflammatory response to a second trivial stimulus. This work explored effects of TLR4 on hemorrhage-induced ALI and “second-hit” responses, and further explore the mechanisms involved in “second-hit” responses.(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroinflammatory response triggered by surgery has been increasingly reported to be associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), play a pivotal role in mediating surgery-induced neuroinflammation. The role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) leading to respiratory distress is a common sequela of shock or trauma. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) stand at the interface of innate immune activation in the settings of both infection and sterile injury by responding to a variety of microbial and endogenous ligands alike. This work explored the effects of TLR-4 on(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in the innate immune system, and increasing evidence supports its role in inflammation, stress, and tissue injury, including injury to the lung and brain. We aimed to investigate the effects of TLR4 on neuroinflammation due to the lung-brain interaction in mechanically ventilated mice. Male wild-type (WT)(More)
BACKGROUND Dexmedetomidine reduced mortality and inhibited the inflammatory response during endotoxemia in rats. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of dexmedetomidine-regulating inflammation on a noninfectious, ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in dogs. METHODS Thirty healthy Beagles weighing between 8 and 12 kg were randomly divided into(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, a common complication after surgery in elderly patients, is an increasing and largely underestimated problem without a defined etiology. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The present study sought to investigate the role of neuroinflammation(More)
There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium. Inattention is one of the symptoms of delirium. Increases in the levels of α-synuclein and S100β have been reported to be associated with delirium. Therefore, we set out to determine the effects of surgery plus general anesthesia on the behavioral changes (including loss of attention)(More)
Mechanical ventilation can cause direct injury to the lungs, a type of injury known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). VILI is associated with up-regulates angiotensinogen and AT1 receptor expression of in the lung. This work explored effects of losartan on VILI in diabetic mice. Ninty-six C57Bl/6 mice were randomly divided into six groups, control(More)
Activation of microglia is involved in a broad range of neuroinflammatory diseases. Suppression of microglial activation may, therefore, contribute to alleviate the progression of neuroinflammatory diseases. It has been reported that propofol has a potent anti-inflammatory property. In the present study, we investigated the effects of posttreatment with(More)