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BACKGROUND Bypass of foregut secreted factors promoting insulin resistance is hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms by which resolution of type 2 diabetes (T2D) follows roux-en-y gastric bypass (GBP) surgery. AIM To identify insulin resistance-associated proteins and metabolites which decrease more after GBP than after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) prior to(More)
Cardiac disease is the commonest cause of death amongst diabetic patients. Diabetic cardiomyopathy, which has a poor prognosis, is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function and mitochondrial damage is said to contribute to its development. We recently showed that treatment with the Cu(II) -selective chelator,(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that displays pathological characteristics including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Metabolic defects are also present in AD-brain: for example, signs of deficient cerebral glucose uptake may occur decades before onset of cognitive dysfunction and tissue damage. There have(More)
Birds generally age slower and live longer than similar sized mammals. For birds this occurs despite elevated blood glucose levels that for mammals would in part define them as diabetic. However these data were acquired in respiration states that have little resemblance to conditions in healthy tissues and mitochondrial RS production is probably minimal in(More)
Hypertension now affects about 600 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of death in the Western world. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), provides a useful model to investigate hypertensive heart failure (HF). The SHR model replicates the clinical progression of hypertension in humans, wherein early development of hypertension is followed(More)
Diabetes now affects more than 5% of the world's population and heart failure is the most common cause of death amongst diabetic patients. Accumulating evidence supports a view that myocardial mitochondrial structural and functional changes are central to the onset of diabetic heart failure, but the exact nature of these changes at the proteomic level(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily and regulate the formation of cartilage and bone tissues as well as other key events during development. TGF-beta superfamily signaling is mediated intracellularly by Smad proteins, some of which can translocate into the cell nucleus and influence(More)
The first successful gene therapy trial was reported in 1991. Since then, successful gene transfer in cultured cells and small animals has been reported by many studies, with achievement of at least transitory high levels of exogenous gene expression. Over 400 clinical protocols for gene therapy have been approved, involving over 4000 patients. However,(More)
Aims In heart failure transverse-tubule (t-tubule) remodelling disrupts calcium release, and contraction. T-tubules in human failing hearts exhibit increased labelling by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), a lectin that binds to the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex. We hypothesized changes in this complex may explain the increased WGA labelling and(More)
We describe a new, simple, robust and efficient method based on direct-tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry that enables consistent semi-quantitation of peptide hormones in isolated pancreatic islets from normal and diabetic rodents. Prominent signals were measured that corresponded to all the main(More)