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To isolate the effect of education from the influence of potential underlying factors, we investigated the association of education with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) using twin data to adjust for familial factors shared within twins, including genetic make-up and childhood environment. The study was based on data(More)
UNLABELLED Hydronephrosis is diagnosed in 0.5-1% of all newborns, and ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) accounts for 35% of those cases. A urinary tract obstruction that occurs during early kidney development affects renal morphogenesis, maturation, and growth, and in the most severe cases, this will ultimately lead to progressive renal tubular(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. DESIGN Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross sectional study of random samples of children and their(More)
Smoking is a well-established risk factor for fetal growth restriction and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, and nicotine may be one of the chemical compounds that drive these associations. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a smoking cessation aid, which can facilitate smoking cessation. It is, however, unknown whether NRT used during pregnancy impairs(More)
This study examines the joint and separate contribution of social class in early and adult life to differences in health and physical function in middle-aged men. We use data from the Metropolit project which includes men born in 1953 in Copenhagen and a study of middle-aged Danish twins (MADT). In total 6292 Metropolit participants in a follow-up survey on(More)
According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were(More)
This study examined inequalities in infant mortality in Denmark in relation to maternal educational level, and compared the inequalities to those observed in a similar study 10 years earlier. It was a register-based study of all singleton births in Denmark 1991-92, a study population of 113,814 births. When adjusted for mother's age, parity, and smoking,(More)
During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes(More)
A population-based twin study in women of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. It has become increasingly recognized that many of the associations between various exposures and health outcomes measured in adulthood are confounded by social and behavioural factors acting early in life, 1 and recent research has questioned whether socioeconomic(More)
The introduction of prenatal ultrasonography as a screening method entails an increasing number of infants diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction accounts for 35% of prenatal hydronephrotic cases. Urinary tract obstruction that occurs during early kidney development affects renal morphogenesis, maturation and growth, and(More)