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The present study was conducted to survey the prevalence and genotypic distribution of human astrovirus (HAstV) circulating in South Korea. Of 160,027 patients with acute gastroenteritis, 2,057 (1.3%) were positive for HAstV antigen. We determined the genotypes of 187 HAstV strains collected from laboratories across the country. Genetic analysis revealed(More)
A Korean nationwide surveillance on circulating rotavirus strains was conducted from September 2000 to August 2007 aiming to obtain prevaccine data for predicting vaccine effectiveness. The predominant strains among the 2779 strains analyzed varied annually and only approximately 50% had either a G or a P antigen present in both RotaTeq (Merck & Co. Inc.,(More)
Prevalence of asymptomatic norovirus infection was investigated in food handlers in South Korea. Among 6,441 subjects, 66 (1.02%) had norovirus infections confirmed by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (real time and nested). GII-12 and GII-4 were the prevalent genotypes. Our data suggest that infection of asymptomatic food handlers is an important(More)
When the network changed dynamically in the network environments such as IoT(Internet of Things), Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork(MANET), Ubiquitous Sensor Network(USN), the network environments reestablish and manage the internet for the facilitation of the data transmission by using several ways as reroute, recovery and etc. Now days, in the Software-Defined(More)
A nonconjugated anionic polyelectrolyte, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS-Na), was applied to the optoelectronic devices as an interfacial layer (IFL) at the semiconducting layer/cathode interface. The ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and the Kelvin probe microscopy studies support the formation of a favorable interface dipole at the(More)
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