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The activation of spinal cord glial cells has been implicated in the development of neuropathic pain upon peripheral nerve injury. The molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell activation, however, have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that damaged sensory neurons induce the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta,(More)
A Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium capable of gliding motility, designated strain WPCB118(T), was isolated from fresh water collected from the Woopo wetland (Republic of Korea). Cells were rod-shaped and sometimes filamentous. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c (45.6 %), C(16 : 1)omega5c (18.5 %), iso-C(15 : 0)(More)
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is essential for ligand-induced gene repression of 25(OH)D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha(OH)ase) in mammalian kidney, while this gene expression is activated by protein kinase A (PKA) signaling downstream of the parathyroid hormone action. The mapped negative vitamin D response element (1alphanVDRE) in the human 1alpha(OH)ase gene(More)
BACKGROUND Deletion of large blocks of nonessential genes that are not needed for metabolic pathways of interest can reduce the production of unwanted by-products, increase genome stability, and streamline metabolism without physiological compromise. Researchers have recently constructed a reduced-genome Escherichia coli strain MDS42 that lacks 14.3% of its(More)
Although transactivation by the liganded vitamin D receptor (VDR) is well described at the molecular level, the precise molecular mechanism of negative regulation by the liganded VDR remains to be elucidated. We have previously reported a novel class of negative vitamin D response element (nVDRE) called 1alphanVDRE in the human 25(OH)D31alpha-hydroxylase(More)
Mast cells participate in allergy and inflammation by secreting inflammatory mediators such as histamine and proinflammatory cytokines. Flavonoids are naturally occurring molecules with antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antiinflammatory actions. However, effect of flavonoids on the release of histamine and proinflammatory mediator, and their comparative(More)
Gas sparging was found to be a useful technique to reduce hydrogen partial pressure in the liquid phase to enhance the hydrogen yields of strictly anaerobically fermentative bacteria. The effect of nitrogen (N(2)) sparging on hydrogen yield was investigated in sterile and non-sterile conditions using a pure strain of the hyperthermophilic eubacteria,(More)
A gene (ssg) encoding a putative glucoamylase in a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus solfataricus, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the properties of the recombinant protein were examined in relation to the glucose production process. The recombinant glucoamylase was extremely thermostable, with an optimal temperature at 90 degrees C.(More)
Microbial colonization and infection of placental tissues often lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The fetal membranes of the placenta, a physical and active barrier to microbial invasion, encapsulate the fetus and secure its intrauterine environment. To examine the innate defense(More)
We have previously shown that the novel ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex WINAC is required for the ligand-bound vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated transrepression of the 25(OH)D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha(OH)ase) gene. However, the molecular basis for VDR promoter association, which does not involve its binding to specific DNA sequences, remains(More)