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The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) contains five identical polypeptides and targets glycosphingolipid receptors on eukaryotic cell surfaces. Increased expression of CTB in plants is critical for the development of edible vaccines. In this study, the coding sequence of the CTB gene was optimized, based on the modification of codon usage to that of tobacco(More)
Transgenic chloroplasts have become attractive systems for heterologous gene expressions because of unique advantages. Here, we report a feasibility study for producing the nontoxic B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) via chloroplast transformation of tobacco. Stable site-specific integration of the LTB gene into chloroplast genome(More)
Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) is a potent mucosal immunogen and immunoadjuvant for coadministered antigens. We synthesized a gene encoding the B-subunit of LT (LTB) adapted to the coding sequence of tobacco plants and fused to the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal SEKDEL to enhance its level of expression in plants. The synthetic LTB gene was(More)
There are no well-matched, controlled studies comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of complicated scrub typhus. A retrospective propensity score-matched case-control study was performed for patients who presented with complicated scrub typhus and were treated with doxycycline or azithromycin between 2001 and 2011. Data on comorbidities,(More)
The rates and severity of Clostridium difficile infections, including pseudomembranous colitis, have increased markedly. However, there are few effective treatments for refractory or recurrent C. difficile infections and the outcomes are poor. Fecal microbiota transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as an effective and safe intervention in(More)
Rothia species are pleomorphic gram-positive bacteria that belong to the Micrococcaceae family [1]. The Rothia genus presently comprises 6 named species, 2 of which are deemed clinically relevant: Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa [2-6]. Another member of the genus, Rothia aeria, a taxon group provisionally named R. dentocariosa genomovar II, is a(More)
The use of quinolone for treatment of rickettsial diseases remains controversial. Recent clinical studies suggest that quinolone is not as effective as others in patients with rickettsial diseases including scrub typhus, although the mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the mutation in gyrA associated with quinolone resistance. We(More)
BACKGROUND Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common causes of infection in the intensive care unit (ICU). Although surveillance culture for MRSA is recommended for ICU patients, no comparative study investigating the optimal sites and frequency of culture has been performed in this population. METHODS A prospective(More)
Age can affect the clinical features and severity of infectious disorders, such as scrub typhus. We performed this study to examine differences between elderly and non-elderly scrub typhus patients, and to identify risk factors predictive of disease outcomes. This retrospective study included patients admitted to a tertiary hospital with scrub typhus(More)
Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics (PA) for reducing the infectious complications and the potential risk factors responsible for the infectious complications after stent insertion for malignant colorectal obstruction. Methods. We performed a retrospective review of 224 patients who underwent(More)