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TLR2 in association with TLR1 or TLR6 plays an important role in the innate immune response by recognizing microbial lipoproteins and lipopeptides. Here we present the crystal structures of the human TLR1-TLR2-lipopeptide complex and of the mouse TLR2-lipopeptide complex. Binding of the tri-acylated lipopeptide, Pam(3)CSK(4), induced the formation of an "m"(More)
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate physiological processes by degrading intracellular second messengers, adenosine-3',5'-cyclic phosphate or guanosine-3',5'-cyclic phosphate. The first crystal structure of PDE4D catalytic domain and a bound inhibitor, zardaverine, was determined. Zardaverine binds to a highly conserved pocket that includes(More)
It has been recently proposed that pro-inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) play a key role in the aging process. However, it remains unclear whether the pro-inflammatory activity of COX-2 is involved in the aging process and whether COX-2 inhibitors prevent aging. We therefore examined the effect of COX-2 inhibitors on aging in the cellular(More)
B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is a key regulator of B-lymphocyte development. Its biological role is mediated by the specific receptors BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R. We have determined the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of BAFF-R bound to BAFF at a resolution of 3.3 Å. The cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of the BAFF-R extracellular domain adopts a(More)
A key regulatory enzyme of the C4-photosynthetic pathway is stromal pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, EC As a pivotal enzyme in the C4 pathway, it undergoes diurnal light-dark regulation of activity which is mediated by a single bifunctional regulatory protein (RP). RP specifically inactivates PPDK in the dark by an ADP-dependent(More)
It has been proposed that the pro-inflammatory catalytic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a key role in the aging process. However, it remains unclear whether the COX-2 activity is a causal factor for aging and whether COX-2 inhibitors could prevent aging. We here examined the effect of COX-2 inhibitors on aging in the intrinsic skin aging model(More)
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND Chronic cough is one of the more common respiratory symptoms. Controversy exists as to whether Chlamydia infection is associated with chronic cough. As such, the association of chronic cough with serological evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. P) infection and a systemic inflammatory marker was assessed. METHODS Thirty-seven(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of aquatic treadmill training (ATT) as a new modality for stroke rehabilitation, by assessing changes in gait symmetry, balance function, and subjective balance confidence for the paretic and non-paretic leg in stroke patients. METHODS Twenty-one subacute stroke patients participated in 15 intervention sessions of(More)
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