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Traditionally the un-weighted Z-tests, which follow the one-patient-one-vote principle, are standard for comparisons of treatment effects. We discuss two types of weighted Z-tests in this manuscript to incorporate data collected in two (or more) stages or in two (or more) regions. We use the type A weighted Z-test to exemplify the variance spending approach(More)
In recent years, global collaboration has become a conventional strategy for new drug development. To accelerate the development process and to shorten approval time, the design of multi-regional trials incorporates subjects from many countries around the world under the same protocol. After showing the overall efficacy of a drug in all global regions, one(More)
Developing a new medicine is an expensive and time-consuming process. Researchers are interested in applying better designs to expedite the approval of potential medicinal products. Adaptive designs, which allow for some types of prospectively planned mid-study change, can improve the efficiency of a trial and maximize the chance of success. Possible design(More)
When a new investigational medicine is intended to be applied to populations with different ethnic backgrounds, a stratified comparative phase III trial using ethnic groups as strata may be conducted to assess the influence of ethnic factors on clinical outcomes of this new medicine. In this paper, based on a binomial model with odds ratio as the measure of(More)
In this article, we try to address the optimal dosing issue using a multiregional trial. In this trial, in addition to the treatment group using a globally promising dose of study drug, we have another treatment group using a lower dose treatment with which the drug also shows substantial treatment effect in some of the regions, and both treatment groups(More)
A multiregional trial, conducted in more than one region under a common protocol, is a promising strategy making valuable medicines available to patients globally without time lag. When evaluating the treatment effect for each local region, one may wish to utilize information from other regions to enhance the statistical power. This work proposes a Bayesian(More)
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