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NMDA receptor activation promotes endocytosis of AMPA receptors, which is an important mechanism underlying long-term synaptic depression. The pH-sensitive GFP variant pHluorin fused to the N terminus of GluA2 (pH-GluA2) has been used to assay NMDA-mediated AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Here, we demonstrate that in somatic and dendritic regions(More)
PDZ domain proteins control multiple cellular functions by governing assembly of protein complexes. It remains unknown why individual PDZ domains can bind the extreme C terminus of very diverse binding partners and maintain selectivity. By employing NMR spectroscopy, together with molecular modeling, mutational analysis, and fluorescent polarization binding(More)
Proteins containing PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domains play key roles in the assembly and regulation of cellular signaling pathways and represent putative targets for new pharmacotherapeutics. Here we describe the first small-molecule inhibitor (FSC231) of the PDZ domain in protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) identified by a screening of(More)
Erythropoietin, a member of the type 1 cytokine superfamily, controls proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells through binding to and dimerization of the erythropoietin receptor. Both erythropoietin and its receptor are also expressed in the central nervous system, where they are involved in tissue protection. However, the use of(More)
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for sequestration of extracellular dopamine (DA). The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is a DAT substrate, which is actively transported into the nerve terminal, eliciting vesicular depletion and reversal of DA transport via DAT. Here, we investigate the role of the DAT C terminus in AMPH-evoked DA efflux(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces neuronal differentiation and promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types by binding to a receptor complex formed by CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), gp130, and the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor (LIFR). The CD loop-D helix region of CNTF has been suggested to be important for the cytokine interaction(More)
Apart from its hematopoietic activity, erythropoietin (EPO) is also known as a tissue-protective cytokine. In the brain, EPO and its receptor are up-regulated in response to insult and exert pro-survival effects. EPO binds to its receptor (EPOR) via high- and low-affinity binding sites (Sites 1 and 2, respectively), inducing conformational changes in the(More)
The natural product argiotoxin-636 (ArgTX-636) found in the venom of the Argiope lobata spider is a potent open-channel blocker of ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors, and recently, two analogues, ArgTX-75 and ArgTX-48, were identified with increased potency and selectivity for iGlu receptor subtypes. Here, we have exploited these analogues as templates(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a prevalent and severe mood disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in BD etiology, but the biological underpinnings remain elusive. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying genes conferring risk for schizophrenia, BD, and(More)
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