Mette Kalager

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INTRODUCTION Mammography screening reduces breast cancer mortality through earlier diagnosis but may convey further benefit if screening is associated with optimized treatment through multidisciplinary medical care. In Norway, a national mammography screening program was introduced among women aged 50 to 69 years during 1995/6 to 2004. Also during this(More)
Mammography screening for breast cancer is widely available in many countries. Initially praised as a universal achievement to improve women's health and to reduce the burden of breast cancer, the benefits and harms of mammography screening have been debated heatedly in the past years. This review discusses the benefits and harms of mammography screening in(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the prognosis in women with interval breast cancer (cancer detected after a normal screening mammogram and before the next scheduled mammogram) with breast cancer detected among women not yet invited to mammography screening (non-screened). DESIGN Population based observational study. SETTING Norwegian breast cancer screening(More)
Introduction: Because a comparison of non-initiators and initiators of treatment may be hopelessly confounded, guidelines for the conduct of observational research often recommend using an " active " comparator group consisting of people who initiate a treatment other than the medication of interest. In this paper, we discuss the conditions under which this(More)
BACKGROUND The per-protocol effect is the effect that would have been observed in a randomized trial had everybody followed the protocol. Though obtaining a valid point estimate for the per-protocol effect requires assumptions that are unverifiable and often implausible, lower and upper bounds for the per-protocol effect may be estimated under more(More)
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