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The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms has increased significantly in many regions of the world in the last century due to water eutrophication. These blooms are hazardous to humans, animals, and plants due to the production of cyanotoxins, which can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant(More)
We investigated the genotoxic responses to two types of TiO2 nanoparticles (<25 nm anatase: TiO(2)-An, and <100 nm rutile: TiO2-Ru) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Under the applied exposure conditions the particles were agglomerated or aggregated with the size of agglomerates and aggregates in the micrometer range, and were not cytotoxic. TiO2-An, but not(More)
Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptides produced by different freshwater cyanobacterial species such as Microcystis aeruginosa. They have been shown to induce DNA damage in vitro and in vivo, however, the mechanisms of their genotoxic activity remain unclear. With the comet assay we demonstrate that, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, microcystin-LR (MCLR)(More)
Cadmium is a human carcinogen of worldwide concern because it accumulates in the environment due to its extremely long half-life. Its compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities and can cause numerous molecular lesions that would be(More)
We studied the protective effect of monoterpenes myrcene, eucalyptol and linalool against t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced genotoxicity in reverse mutation assay with Escherichia coli WP2 IC185 strain and its oxyR mutant IC202, and with the comet assay in human hepatoma HepG2 and human B lymphoid NC-NC cells. The monoterpenes were tested in(More)
Organophosphorous compounds (OPs) are commonly used pesticides. The primary mechanism of OP toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase in the nervous system leading to a variety of acute and chronic effects. Recent studies have revealed several other targets of OPs that disturb noncholinergic biological systems. We investigated whether low(More)
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) a potent cyanobacterial cytotoxin and protein synthesis inhibitor is increasingly being found in surface freshwaters worldwide. Due to its genotoxic activity and potential carcinogenicity it was recognized as a potential threat to humans. However, the mechanisms of CYN genotoxicity are not well understood. We explored whether CYN at(More)
The newly emerging cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is showing genotoxic effects in a range of test systems. However, the knowledge on the mechanisms involved is limited. To get insight into the cellular responses to CYN a toxicogenomic analysis of selected genes commonly affected by genotoxic stress was performed on HepG2 cells exposed to a(More)
The newly emerging cyanobacterial cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is increasingly found in surface freshwaters, worldwide. It poses a potential threat to humans after chronic exposure as it was shown to be genotoxic in a range of test systems and is potentially carcinogenic. However, the mechanisms of CYN toxicity and genotoxicity are not well(More)
The co-genotoxic effects of cadmium are well recognized and it is assumed that most of these effects are due to the inhibition of DNA repair. We used the comet assay to analyze the effect of low, non-toxic concentrations of CdCl2 on DNA damage and repair-induced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by UV-radiation, by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and by(More)