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Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles during normal growth. Vesicles may contribute to bacterial pathogenicity by serving as vehicles for toxins to encounter host cells. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) vesicles were isolated from culture supernatants and purified on velocity gradients, thereby removing any soluble(More)
Gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain biologically active proteins and perform diverse biological processes. Unlike other secretion mechanisms, OMVs enable bacteria to secrete insoluble molecules in addition to and in complex with soluble material. OMVs allow enzymes to reach distant targets in a concentrated, protected,(More)
Extracellular secretion of products is the major mechanism by which Gram-negative pathogens communicate with and intoxicate host cells. Vesicles released from the envelope of growing bacteria serve as secretory vehicles for proteins and lipids of Gram-negative bacteria. Vesicle production occurs in infected tissues and is influenced by environmental(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a prevalent cause of traveler's diarrhea and infant mortality in third-world countries. Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is secreted from ETEC via vesicles composed of outer membrane and periplasm. We investigated the role of ETEC vesicles in pathogenesis by analyzing vesicle association and entry into eukaryotic(More)
Outer membrane (OM) vesicles are ubiquitously produced by Gram-negative bacteria during all stages of bacterial growth. OM vesicles are naturally secreted by both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Strong experimental evidence exists to categorize OM vesicle production as a type of Gram-negative bacterial virulence factor. A growing body of data(More)
Considerable lung injury results from the inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The P. aeruginosa laboratory strain PAO1, an environmental isolate, and isolates from CF patients were cultured in vitro and outer membrane vesicles from those cultures were quantitated, purified, and characterized.(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a prevalent opportunistic human pathogen that, like other Gram-negative pathogens, secretes outer membrane vesicles. Vesicles are complex entities composed of a subset of envelope lipid and protein components that have been observed to interact with and be internalized by host cells. This study characterized the inflammatory(More)
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are constitutively produced by Gram-negative bacteria throughout growth and have proposed roles in virulence, inflammation, and the response to envelope stress. Here we investigate outer membrane vesiculation as a bacterial mechanism for immediate short-term protection against outer membrane acting stressors. Antimicrobial(More)
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced by all Gram-negative microorganisms studied to date. The contributions of OMVs to biological processes are diverse and include mediation of bacterial stress responses, selective packaging and secretion of virulence determinants, modulation of the host immune response, and contributions to biofilm formation and(More)
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are constitutively produced by all Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs form when buds from the outer membrane (OM) of cells encapsulate periplasmic material and pinch off from the OM to form spheroid particles approximately 10 to 300nm in diameter. OMVs accomplish a diversity of functional roles yet the OMV's utility is ultimately(More)