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In a survey of Leishmania infections in phlebotomine sandflies in a highly suspected focus of leishmaniasis in the Awash Valley (northeastern Ethiopia) between January 1994 and August 1997, a total of 3307 females of 11 Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. fantalensis, P. saevus, P. sergenti, P. gemetchi, P. alexandri, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P.(More)
The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands) since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary(More)
The role of anophelines in transmitting malaria depends on their distribution, preference to feed on humans and also their susceptibility to Plasmodium gametocytes, all of which are affected by local environmental conditions. Blood meal source and entomological inoculation rate of anophelines was assessed along a highland altitudinal transect in south-(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. orientalis in the VL endemic(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of livestock keeping on the human biting rate (HBR) of anopheline mosquitoes and malaria transmission around Ziway in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. DESIGN As a passive experiment, man landing captures were done in homesteads with mixed dwelling, separate cattle shed and without livestock; and as an active(More)
BACKGROUND Anopheles arabiensis is the major vector of malaria in Ethiopia. Malaria vector control in Ethiopia is based on selective indoor residual spraying using DDT, distribution of long lasting insecticide treated nets and environmental management of larval breeding habitats. DDT and pyrethroid insecticides are neurotoxins and have a similar mode of(More)
Anopheles arabiensis, the main malaria vector in Ethiopia, shows both anthropophilic and zoophilic behaviours. Insecticide resistance is increasing, and alternative methods of vector control are needed. The objectives of this study were to determine the blood meal origins and the susceptibility to insecticides of An. arabiensis from Chano village near Arba(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets are one of the major tools available for the prevention and control of malaria transmission. PermaNet is a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) recommended by WHO for malaria control. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess utilization(More)