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In a survey of Leishmania infections in phlebotomine sandflies in a highly suspected focus of leishmaniasis in the Awash Valley (northeastern Ethiopia) between January 1994 and August 1997, a total of 3307 females of 11 Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. fantalensis, P. saevus, P. sergenti, P. gemetchi, P. alexandri, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P.(More)
As part of an epidemiological investigation of visceral leishmaniasis, entomological surveys were conducted in Ziway-Langano, Dimtu-Bilate and Wadjifo-Mirab Abaya areas located in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley between November 1994 and June 1996. A total of 4518 sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected from the study areas using CDC(More)
The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution(More)
The role of anophelines in transmitting malaria depends on their distribution, preference to feed on humans and also their susceptibility to Plasmodium gametocytes, all of which are affected by local environmental conditions. Blood meal source and entomological inoculation rate of anophelines was assessed along a highland altitudinal transect in south-(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands) since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary entomological surveys(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets are one of the major tools available for the prevention and control of malaria transmission. PermaNet is a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) recommended by WHO for malaria control. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess utilization(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also called “kala-azar”), is a life threatening neglected tropical infectious disease which mainly affects the poorest of the poor. VL is prevalent in Ethiopia particularly in the northwest of the country. Understanding the risk factors of VL infection helps in its prevention and control. The aim of the present study was to(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. orientalis in the VL endemic(More)
Change in climatic and socio-economic situations is paving the way for the spread of malaria in highland areas which were generally known to be malaria free. Despite this, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce. Thus, the present study investigated entomological parameters linked to malaria transmission in the highlands of Southern(More)
Anopheles arabiensis is the major vector of malaria in Ethiopia. Malaria vector control in Ethiopia is based on selective indoor residual spraying using DDT, distribution of long lasting insecticide treated nets and environmental management of larval breeding habitats. DDT and pyrethroid insecticides are neurotoxins and have a similar mode of action on the(More)