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Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and(More)
The well-characterized Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend oil and several other oils which are commonly transported in Canada were physically weathered and then incubated with a defined microbial inoculum. The purpose was to produce quantitative data on oil components and component groups which are more susceptible or resistant to biodegradation, and to determine(More)
A GC/MS method for the characterization of 22-year-old spilled Arrow oil is described. After 22 years of weathering in the environment, most saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in most Arrow oil samples have been lost. Their fingerprints give little information of the source, characteristics, and fate of the spilled oil. However, the(More)
Water-in-oil mixtures were grouped into four states or classes: stable, mesostable, unstable, and entrained water. Of these, only stable and mesostable states can be characterized as emulsions. These states were established according to lifetime, visual appearance, complex modulus, and differences in viscosity. Water content at formation was not an(More)
Oil, refined product, and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are the most frequently discovered contaminants in the environment. To effectively determine the fate of spilled oil in the environment and to successfully identify source(s) of spilled oil and petroleum products is, therefore, extremely important in many oil-related environmental studies and liability cases.(More)
We have investigated the use of headspace solid phase microextraction (HSSPME) as a sample concentration and preparation technique for the analysis of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soil samples. Soil samples were suspended in solvent and the SPME fibre suspended in the headspace above the slurry. Finally, the fibre was desorbed in the Gas(More)
Six crude oil-degrading bacterial strains isolated from different soil and water environments were combined to create a defined consortium for use in standardized efficacy testing of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (OSBA). The isolates were cryopreserved in individual aliquots at pre-determined cell densities, stored at −70°C, and thawed for use(More)
A reliable, effective, and accurate gas chromatographidmass spectrometric (GC/MS) method for differentiation and source identification of crude and weathered oils by the use of isomeric methyldibenzothiophene (C1-DBT) compounds is described. The method complements existing methods useful for oil characterization, but has its own distinct advantages: (1)(More)
The current knowledge of the physical fate and behaviour of crude oil and petroleum products spilled in Arctic situations is reviewed. The fate and final deposition of oil in marine conditions is presented as based on the extant literature. Spreading models were evaluated for oil on ice, under ice, in snow, in brash ice, and between blocks of ice. Models of(More)