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Water-in-oil mixtures were grouped into four states or classes: stable, mesostable, unstable, and entrained water. Of these, only stable and mesostable states can be characterized as emulsions. These states were established according to lifetime, visual appearance, complex modulus, and differences in viscosity. Water content at formation was not an(More)
This report is a review of the literature on oil spill dispersants published from 1997 to August, 2008. The report identifies and focusses on recent advances in dispersant effectiveness, toxicity, and biodegradation. Other topics such as application, use, behaviour and fate are also covered. The prime motivation for using dispersants is to reduce the impact(More)
This report is a survey of tank facilities that could be used for testing oil spill dispersants. The report begins with considerations for tank testing, followed by a list of requirements for tank testing, and data is then provided on a number of potential tanks. There are many issues related to conducting dispersant tests in large tanks. These have been(More)
A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method has been developed for the quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples. Parameters such as sampling time, volume of water, volume of headspace, temperature, addition of salts, and agitation of the sample were studied. Because the time for reaching equilibrium between phases takes several(More)