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Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and(More)
The current knowledge of the physical fate and behaviour of crude oil and petroleum products spilled in Arctic situations is reviewed. The fate and final deposition of oil in marine conditions is presented as based on the extant literature. Spreading models were evaluated for oil on ice, under ice, in snow, in brash ice, and between blocks of ice. Models of(More)
The well-characterized Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend oil and several other oils which are commonly transported in Canada were physically weathered and then incubated with a defined microbial inoculum. The purpose was to produce quantitative data on oil components and component groups which are more susceptible or resistant to biodegradation, and to determine(More)
Water-in-oil mixtures were grouped into four states or classes: stable, mesostable, unstable, and entrained water. Of these, only stable and mesostable states can be characterized as emulsions. These states were established according to lifetime, visual appearance, complex modulus, and differences in viscosity. Water content at formation was not an(More)
This paper summarizes studies to determine the formation process of water-in-oil emulsions and the stability of such emulsions formed in the laboratory and in a large test tank. These studies have confirmed that water-in-oil mixtures can be grouped into four states: stable emulsions, unstable water-in-oil mixtures, mesostable emulsions, and entrained water.(More)
This report is a review of the literature on oil spill dispersants published from 1997 to August, 2008. The report identifies and focusses on recent advances in dispersant effectiveness, toxicity, and biodegradation. Other topics such as application, use, behaviour and fate are also covered. The prime motivation for using dispersants is to reduce the impact(More)
Oil, refined product, and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are the most frequently discovered contaminants in the environment. To effectively determine the fate of spilled oil in the environment and to successfully identify source(s) of spilled oil and petroleum products is, therefore, extremely important in many oil-related environmental studies and liability cases.(More)