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Water-in-oil mixtures were grouped into four states or classes: stable, mesostable, unstable, and entrained water. Of these, only stable and mesostable states can be characterized as emulsions. These states were established according to lifetime, visual appearance, complex modulus, and differences in viscosity. Water content at formation was not an(More)
This report is a review of the literature on oil spill dispersants published from 1997 to August, 2008. The report identifies and focusses on recent advances in dispersant effectiveness, toxicity, and biodegradation. Other topics such as application, use, behaviour and fate are also covered. The prime motivation for using dispersants is to reduce the impact(More)
Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global(More)
This report is a survey of tank facilities that could be used for testing oil spill dispersants. The report begins with considerations for tank testing, followed by a list of requirements for tank testing, and data is then provided on a number of potential tanks. There are many issues related to conducting dispersant tests in large tanks. These have been(More)
This paper is a summary of the effects of water salinity on chemical dispersion, especially those effects related to effectiveness. Surfactants are the active ingredient in dispersants. The surfactant is more lipophilic, or oil-loving, in freshwater and increases in hydrophilicity (or water-loving) as the salinity rises. The stability of the resulting(More)