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and Yale for their helpful comments. They are grateful to the Editor, Associate Editor and referees for their valuable advice. ABSTRACT Consumers' purchase decisions can be influenced by others' opinions, i.e., word-of-mouth (WOM), and/or others' actions, i.e., observational learning. While information technologies are creating increasing opportunities for(More)
This study addresses two questions: (1) when youths are exposed to advertisements for cigarettes, do they primarily see advertisements for brands or products, and (2) is there a relationship between youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements and their susceptibility to smoking? A sample of 271 participants ranging in age from 7 to 12 viewed a series(More)
Our here in the western US a "brand" is distinctive symbol placed on livestock (cattle, horses) to indicate their ranch of origin. Brands originated in the 1800's to deter thieves and to place lost animals. The brand is applied by heating an iron template to red-hot and then burning the brand into the hide of the animal. In that context, the title of this(More)
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