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and Yale for their helpful comments. They are grateful to the Editor, Associate Editor and referees for their valuable advice. ABSTRACT Consumers' purchase decisions can be influenced by others' opinions, i.e., word-of-mouth (WOM), and/or others' actions, i.e., observational learning. While information technologies are creating increasing opportunities for(More)
Interleukin (IL)-17 plays a critical role in inflammation. Most studies to date have elucidated the inflammatory role of IL-17A, often referred to as IL-17. IL-17F is a member of the IL-17 family bearing 50% homology to IL-17A and can also be present as heterodimer IL-17AF. This study elucidates the distribution and contribution of IL-17A, F and AF in(More)
AIMS We explore young children's attitudes toward, beliefs about, and life-style associations with cigarette smoking using direct and indirect measures. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Second (n = 100) and fifth grade (n = 141) elementary school students (i.e. 7-8 and 10-11-year-olds) were excused from class and individually interviewed. METHODS(More)
This study addresses two questions: (1) when youths are exposed to advertisements for cigarettes, do they primarily see advertisements for brands or products, and (2) is there a relationship between youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements and their susceptibility to smoking? A sample of 271 participants ranging in age from 7 to 12 viewed a series(More)
Our here in the western US a "brand" is distinctive symbol placed on livestock (cattle, horses) to indicate their ranch of origin. Brands originated in the 1800's to deter thieves and to place lost animals. The brand is applied by heating an iron template to red-hot and then burning the brand into the hide of the animal. In that context, the title of this(More)
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