Merrick R Almond

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CMX157 is a lipid (1-0-hexadecyloxypropyl) conjugate of the acyclic nucleotide analog tenofovir (TFV) with activity against both wild-type and antiretroviral drug-resistant HIV strains, including multidrug nucleoside/nucleotide analog-resistant viruses. CMX157 was consistently >300-fold more active than tenofovir against multiple viruses in several(More)
Rat liver homogenates catalyzed the elimination of fluoride from (R,S)-alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine. The substrate specificity and physical properties of the defluorinating enzyme were similar to those of mitochondrial L-alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II (EC 2.6.1.44, AlaAT-II). Furthermore, AlaAT-II activity, measured with L-alanine and glyoxylate as(More)
5-Ethynyluracil is a potent mechanism-based inactivator of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, EC 1.3.1.2) in vitro (Porter et al., J Biol Chem 267: 5236-5242, 1992) and in vivo (Spector et al., Biochem Pharmacol, 46: 2243-2248, 1993. 5-Ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone was rapidly oxidized to 5-ethynyluracil by aldehyde oxidase. The substrate efficiency(More)
CMX001 (phosphonic acid, [[(S)-2-(4-amino-2-oxo-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl]mono[3-(hexadecyloxy)propyl] ester) is a lipid conjugate of the acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, cidofovir (CDV). CMX001 is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the prophylaxis of human cytomegalovirus infection and under development using the Animal Rule(More)
In the 21st century we are faced with the potential use of natural or recombinant VARV and MPXV as biological weapons, and the emergence of human MPXV. Such an occurrences would require therapeutic and prophylactic intervention with antivirals. Cidofovir, an antiviral approved for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients, has activity(More)
9-R-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-adenine (tenofovir) is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate with antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Tenofovir is not orally bioavailable but becomes orally active against HIV-1 infection as the disoproxil ester (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [Viread]). We have(More)
Substrate and product specificity studies were used to develop inhibitors of the cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I (c-N-I) from myocardium. As measured by Vmax/Km, c-N-I preferred pyrimidine 2'-deoxyribonucleotides as substrates with thymidine monophosphate (TMP) being the most efficient. In product inhibition studies, thymidine inhibited noncompetitively and(More)
The biologically active isomer of 5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil [(R)-5-fluoro-5,6-dihydrouracil, R-FUH2] was synthesized to study the kinetics of its enzymatic oxidation and hydrolysis by homogeneous dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPDase) and dihydropyrimidine aminohydrolase (DPHase), respectively. DPDase catalyzed the slow oxidation of R-FUH2 at pH 8 and 37(More)
HIV encodes an RNA directed DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase, RT) that is an essential enzyme in the viral replication cycle. This enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of double stranded proviral DNA from single stranded genomic RNA via a bireactant-biproduct mechanism. The functional enzyme purified from virus particles is a complex consisting of two(More)
A novel series of HIV protease inhibitors containing cyclic P1/P2 scaffolds has been synthesized and evaluated for biological activity. The trans 3,5-dibenzyl-2-oxo pyrrolidinone ring system resulted in a 50 pM enzyme inhibitor against HIV protease in vitro when combined with an indanolamine derived P'-backbone. This compound also shows comparable activity(More)