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Determination of the MIC, based on the activities of antibiotics against planktonic bacteria, is the standard assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Adherent bacterial populations (biofilms) present with an innate lack of antibiotic susceptibility not seen in the same bacteria grown as planktonic populations. The Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) is(More)
Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are commonly identified intestinal pathogens in humans and animals. In light of the clinical disease, production losses and zoonotic potential of both Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections, a study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in cattle, sheep, pigs and horses in Canadian(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine duration of infection and association of infection with diarrhea for dairy calves with naturally acquired cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis. DESIGN Cohort study. ANIMALS 20 Holstein calves on a single dairy farm. PROCEDURE Fecal samples were collected 3 times/wk for the first 45 days after birth, then weekly until calves were 120(More)
Environmental pollution with human and domestic-animal fecal material is recognized as a potential pathogen pathway for wildlife infections with zooanthropomorphic protozoan parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In this article, we review current knowledge about the diversity of free-living and captive terrestrial and marine mammalian wildlife(More)
Giardia infections in domestic cattle has come under increasing scrutiny owing to the potential contamination of surface and ground waters through manure distribution on fields and pasture runoff. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in beef calves in major beef cow calf farms in Alberta, Canada.(More)
A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dairy calves and to compare Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections in calves of different ages. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 386 male and female Holstein calves (newborn to 24 wk) in 20 dairies located in the lower Fraser river valley area of British Columbia. Giardia(More)
The Afrotropical mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, a major vector of malaria, is currently undergoing speciation into the M and S molecular forms. These forms have diverged in larval ecology and reproductive behavior through unknown genetic mechanisms, despite considerable levels of hybridization. Previous genome-wide scans using gene-based(More)
The structure and infectivity of the oocysts of a new species of Cryptosporidium from the feces of humans are described. Oocysts are structurally indistinguishable from those of Cryptosporidium parvum. Oocysts of the new species are passed fully sporulated, lack sporocysts. and measure 4.4-5.4 microm (mean = 4.86) x 4.4-5.9 microm (mean = 5.2 microm) with a(More)
This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and potential for human infectivity of Giardia cysts in Canadian drinking water supplies. The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was also noted, but isolates were not collected for further study. A total of 1,760 raw water samples, treated water samples, and raw sewage samples were collected from 72(More)