Merja Mikkonen

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Forest tree species provide many examples of well-studied adaptive differentiation, where the search for the underlying genes might be possible. In earlier studies and in our common conditions in a greenhouse, northern populations set bud earlier than southern ones. A difference in latitude of origin of one degree corresponded to a change of 1.4 days in(More)
Nucleotide polymorphism in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was studied in the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (Pal, EC 4.3.1.5). Scots pine, like many other pine species, has a large current population size. The observed levels of inbreeding depression suggest that Scots pine may have a high mutation rate to deleterious alleles. Many Scots pine(More)
To infer the role of natural selection in shaping standing genetic diversity, it is necessary to assess the genomewide impact of demographic history on nucleotide diversity. In this study we analyzed sequence diversity of 16 nuclear loci in eight Pinus sylvestris populations. Populations were divided into four geographical groups on the basis of their(More)
A genetic map of Pinus sylvestris was constructed using ESTP (expressed sequence tag polymorphism) markers and other gene-based markers, AFLP markers and microsatellites. Part of the ESTP markers (40) were developed and mapped earlier in Pinus taeda, and additional markers were generated based on P. sylvestris sequences or sequences from other pine species.(More)
Transcription of genes from phage LL-H can be divided into an early phase and a late phase. The early gene region was located in a 5.9-kb segment of the phage LL-H genome and it was part of the sequence that completed the phage LL-H genome sequence, 34 659 bp in size. Phage LL-H is the first completely sequenced Lactobacillus phage. In the main coding(More)
The putative ribosome binding sites preceding 32 of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis bacteriophage LL-H genes were compared. A highly conserved consensus sequence for the ribosome binding sites of LL-H genes was inferred, GAAAGGAG. This study included the characterization of the last nucleotides of the 3'-end of the 16S rRNA molecule from L.(More)
The phage attachment site, attP, and the integrase-encoding gene, int, are sufficient to promote site-specific integration of the temperate phage mv4 genome into the chromosome of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii host (L. Dupont, B. Boizet-Bonhoure, M. Coddeville, F. Auvray, and P. Ritzenthaler, J. Bacteriol. 177:586--595, 1995). The mv4 genome region(More)
Two regions from the genome of the virulent Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactic bacteriophage LL-H were sequenced (2330 and 12939 bp; 44% of the 34.6-kb genome). Together with the previously sequenced region containing the major capsid protein-encoding gene (2498 bp), the sequence had 21 open reading frames (ORFs) on the main coding strand. Only two(More)
An 837 nt long group IA intron was discovered in the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis virulent phage LL-H genome. The LL-H intron conforms well to the secondary structure that is common to all group I introns. The only exception is that the extreme 3' nucleotide of the intron is an A residue instead of the usual G; despite this the intron is(More)