Learn More
Whether evolution is erratic due to random historical details, or is repeatedly directed along similar paths by certain constraints, remains unclear. Epistasis (i.e. non-additive interaction between mutations that affect fitness) is a mechanism that can contribute to both scenarios. Epistasis can constrain the type and order of selected mutations, but it(More)
TEM-1 β-lactamase is one of the most well-known antibiotic resistance determinants around. It confers resistance to penicillins and early cephalosporins and has shown an astonishing functional plasticity in response to the introduction of novel drugs derived from these antibiotics. Since its discovery in the 1960s, over 170 variants of TEM-1 - with(More)
Understanding epistasis is central to biology. For instance, epistatic interactions determine the topography of the fitness landscape and affect the dynamics and determinism of adaptation. However, few empirical data are available, and comparing results is complicated by confounding variation in the system and the type of mutations used. Here, we take a(More)
Pleiotropy is a key feature of the genotype-phenotype map, and its form and extent have many evolutionary implications, including for the dynamics of adaptation and the evolution of specialization. Similarly, pleiotropic effects of antibiotic resistance mutations may affect the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the simultaneous or fluctuating presence(More)
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are gaining attention as vaccine candidates. The successful expression of heterologous antigens in OMVs, with the OMV functioning both as adjuvant and delivery vehicle, has greatly enhanced their vaccine potential. Since there are indications that surface exposed antigens might induce a superior immune response, targeting of(More)
We present a novel millifluidic droplet analyser (MDA) for precisely monitoring the dynamics of microbial populations over multiple generations in numerous (≥10(3)) aqueous emulsion droplets (~100 nL). As a first application, we measure the growth rate of a bacterial strain and determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the antibiotic(More)
Epistasis is a key factor in evolution since it determines which combinations of mutations provide adaptive solutions and which mutational pathways toward these solutions are accessible by natural selection. There is growing evidence for the pervasiveness of sign epistasis--a complete reversion of mutational effects, particularly in protein evolution--yet(More)
A dataset of TEM lactamase variants with different substrate and inhibition profiles was compiled and analyzed. Trends show that loops are the main evolvable regions in these enzymes, gradually accumulating mutations to generate increasingly complex functions. Notably, many mutations present in evolved enzymes are also found in simpler variants, probably(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this research was to determine whether recombination occurs in class A beta-lactamases. METHODS We performed chi(2) analysis of the observed and expected numbers of times that beta-lactamases from the TEM, SHV and CTX-M groups co-occurred. Additionally, we performed phylogenetic analysis to detect independent occurrences of(More)
  • 1