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OBJECTIVES To evaluate nasal bone length (NBL), prenasal thickness (PT), prenasal thickness-to-nasal bone length (PT-NBL) ratio and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) as markers for Down syndrome in the second and third trimesters. METHODS NBL, PT, PT-NBL ratio and PFSR were measured retrospectively in stored two-dimensional images or three-dimensional volumes(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the use of the maxilla-nasion-mandible (MNM) angle and fetal profile (FP) line to assess the degree of midfacial hypoplasia in Down-syndrome fetuses in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. METHODS The MNM angle and FP line were measured retrospectively in stored two-dimensional images or three-dimensional volumes of(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate nasal bone length (NBL), maxilla-nasion-mandible (MNM) angle, fetal profile (FP) line, prenasal thickness (PT), prenasal thickness to nasal bone length (PT:NBL) ratio and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) as markers of trisomy 18 in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. METHODS The NBL, MNM angle, FP line, PT, PT:NBL ratio and(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate trends of nasal bone length (NBL), prenasal thickness (PT), nuchal fold (NF), prenasal thickness to nasal bone length (PT-NBL) ratio, and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR), measured serially in second- and third-trimester Down syndrome (DS) fetuses. METHODS Prenatal databases were searched for cases of continuing DS pregnancies with(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this article is to investigate whether in the clinical setting of second trimester ultrasound (US) investigations, 3D multiplanar correction prior to the measurement of Down syndrome (DS) facial markers (nasal bone length, prenasal thickness, fetal profile line, maxilla-nasion-mandible angle, prenasal thickness to nasal bone(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate which of the following factors affect the uptake of the combined test (CT) in The Netherlands: women's socio-demographic background, attitude towards Down syndrome, attitude towards termination of pregnancy, counseling process, reimbursement policy, and knowledge on the aim of the CT. METHODS Cross-sectional(More)
OBJECTIVE Aim of the study was to assess the percentage and type of anomalies (structural and chromosomal) that can be detected at an early scan performed at 12-13 weeks' gestation, as opposed to the present screening policy (20 -week scan). METHODS Sonographers accredited for the nuchal translucency (NT) measurement were asked, after additional training,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the public health consequences of the rise in multiple births with respect to congenital anomalies. DESIGN Descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from population-based congenital anomaly registries. SETTING Fourteen European countries. POPULATION A total of 5.4 million births 1984-2007, of which 3% were multiple births. (More)
OBJECTIVE To identify pregnancy-related risk factors for different manifestations of congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs). DESIGN A population-based case-control study. SETTING Seventeen EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries, 1980-2008. POPULATION The study population consisted of 1417 cases with ARM, including 648(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the influence of ethnicity on the awareness and use of folic acid by pregnant women. DESIGN Secondary data analysis. METHOD Using the data on 1555 women, collected during a cross-sectional study conducted among pregnant women with good knowledge of the Dutch language in 1996, the authors determined what was known about the(More)