Meredith Nettles

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The two largest earthquakes of the past 40 years ruptured a 1600-kilometer-long portion of the fault boundary between the Indo-Australian and southeastern Eurasian plates on 26 December 2004 [seismic moment magnitude (Mw) = 9.1 to 9.3] and 28 March 2005 (Mw = 8.6). The first event generated a tsunami that caused more than 283,000 deaths. Fault slip of up to(More)
[1] While it is agreed that the great Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004 was among the largest earthquakes of the past century, there has been disagreement on how large it was, which part of the fault ruptured, and how the rupture took place. We present a centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) analysis of the earthquake in which multiple point sources are used(More)
[1] We used satellite images to examine the calving behavior of Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq Glaciers, Greenland, from 2001 to 2006, a period in which they retreated and sped up. These data show that many large iceberg-calving episodes coincided with teleseismically detected glacial earthquakes, suggesting that calving-related processes are the source of the(More)
Some glaciers and ice streams periodically lurch forward with sufficient force to generate emissions of elastic waves that are recorded on seismometers worldwide. Such glacial earthquakes on Greenland show a strong seasonality as well as a doubling of their rate of occurrence over the past 5 years. These temporal patterns suggest a link to the hydrological(More)
[1] Through combination of surface wave and body wave constraints we derive a threedimensional (3-D) crustal S velocity model and Moho map for Iceland. It reveals a vast plumbing system feeding mantle plume melt into upper crustal magma chambers where crustal formation takes place. The method is based on the partitioned waveform inversion to which we add(More)
We have detected dozens of previously unknown, moderate earthquakes beneath large glaciers. The seismic radiation from these earthquakes is depleted at high frequencies, explaining their nondetection by traditional methods. Inverse modeling of the long-period seismic waveforms from the best-recorded earthquake, in southern Alaska, shows that the seismic(More)
[1] Geodetic observations show several large, sudden increases in flow speed at Helheim Glacier, one of Greenland’s largest outlet glaciers, during summer, 2007. These step-like accelerations, detected along the length of the glacier, coincide with teleseismically detected glacial earthquakes and major iceberg calving events. No coseismic offset in the(More)
[1] Many volcanic earthquakes large enough to be detected globally have anomalous focal mechanisms and frequency content. In a previous study, we examined the relationship between active volcanism and the occurrence of a specific type of shallow, non-double-couple earthquake. We identified 101 earthquakes with vertical compensated-linear-vector-dipole(More)
[1] Large calving events at Greenland’s largest outlet glaciers are associated with glacial earthquakes and near‐ instantaneous increases in glacier flow speed. At some glaciers and ice streams, flow is also modulated in a regular way by ocean tidal forcing at the terminus. At Helheim Glacier, analysis of geodetic data shows decimeter‐level periodic(More)
Using a new biaxial friction apparatus, we conducted experiments of ice-on-rock friction in order to better understand basal sliding of glaciers and ice streams. A series of velocity-stepping and slide-hold-slide tests were conducted to measure friction and healing at temperatures between -20°C and melting. Experimental conditions in this study are(More)