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There is an emerging literature on visual search in natural tasks suggesting that task-relevant goals account for a remarkably high proportion of saccades, including anticipatory eye movements. Moreover, factors such as "visual saliency" that otherwise affect fixations become less important when they are bound to objects that are not relevant to the task at(More)
Previous work examining prosodic cues in online spoken-word recognition has focused primarily on local cues to word identity. However, recent studies have suggested that utterance-level prosodic patterns can also influence the interpretation of subsequent sequences of lexically ambiguous syllables (Dilley, Mattys, & Vinke, Journal of Memory and Language,(More)
We propose, following Clark, that generative models also play a central role in the perception and interpretation of linguistic signals. The data explanation approach provides a rationale for the role of prediction in language processing and unifies a number of phenomena, including multiple-cue integration, adaptation effects, and cortical responses to(More)
Drawing on insights from recent work on phonetic adaptation, we examined how listeners interpret prosodic cues to two opposing pragmatic meanings of the phrase " It looks like an X " (e.g., " It looks like a zebra (and it is one) " and " It LOOKS like a zebra (but its actually not) ". After establishing that different prosodic contours map onto these(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: Abstract A central issue in speech intonation research concerns how fundamental(More)
To test predictions of a forward modeling framework for spoken language processing, we characterized effects of context speech rate on the real-time interpretation of indefinite noun phrases using the visual world paradigm. The speech rate of sentence material distal to the onset of the noun phrase was manipulated such that the segments surrounding the(More)
Although sentences are thought to be generally easier to process when given information precedes new information, closer examination reveals that these preferences only manifest within some syntactic structures. Here, we examine the consequences of the relative ordering of given and new information (information structure) for the on-line comprehension of(More)
The realization of prosody varies across speakers, accents, and speech conditions. Listeners must navigate this variability to converge on consistent prosodic interpretations. We investigate whether listeners adapt to speaker-specific realization of prosody based on recent exposure and, if so, whether such adaptation is rapidly integrated with online(More)
BACKGROUND While several studies suggest that traffic-related air pollutants are detrimental for respiratory health, few studies have examined relationships between residential proximity to a major roadway and asthma control in children. Furthermore, a major limitation of existing research is reliance on self-reported outcomes. We therefore determined the(More)