Learn More
BACKGROUND Severe lower respiratory infections (LRIs) and atopic sensitization have been identified as independent risk factors for asthma. OBJECTIVE The nature of potential interactions between these risk factors was the subject of this study. METHODS A community-based cohort of 198 children at high atopic risk was followed from birth to 5 years. All(More)
The nasopharynx (NP) is a reservoir for microbes associated with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Lung inflammation resulting from ARIs during infancy is linked to asthma development. We examined the NP microbiome during the critical first year of life in a prospective cohort of 234 children, capturing both the viral and bacterial communities and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the association between maternal serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations during a critical window of fetal neurodevelopment and behavioral, emotional, and language outcomes of offspring. METHODS Serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations of 743 Caucasian women in Perth, Western Australia (32°S) were measured at 18 weeks pregnancy and(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between air pollution and respiratory symptoms in young children. A total of 263 children at high risk of developing asthma or atopy were recruited antenatally and all respiratory symptoms experienced by the children were recorded by their parents for five years. Daily pollutant concentrations and(More)
INTRODUCTION Although acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in early childhood worldwide, little progress has been made in their control and prophylaxis. Most studies have focused on hospitalized children or children from closed populations. It is essential that the viral etiology of these clinical diseases be(More)
Pregnancy is a time of vulnerability for vitamin D insufficiency, and there is an emerging literature associating low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D with depressive symptoms. However, the link between 25(OH)-vitamin D status in pregnancy and altered risk of postnatal depressive symptoms has not been examined. We hypothesise that low levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D(More)
AIM Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) impose massive economic burden on health services. The growing costs, limited benefits of pharmacotherapeutic agents, and alarming rise in antibiotic resistance poses a major health challenge. Analysis of the nature and burden of ARI through well-designed epidemiologic studies will help in the development of a uniform(More)
The capacity of the immune system in infants to develop stable T-cell memory in response to vaccination is attenuated, and the mechanism(s) underlying this developmental deficiency in humans is poorly understood. The present study focuses on the capacity for expression of in vitro recall responses to tetanus and diphtheria antigens in lymphocytes from(More)
BACKGROUND Mononuclear cells from children with active atopic dermatitis (AD) have been reported to be hyper-responsive to certain microbial stimuli, in particular staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). However, it is not known whether this responsiveness is acquired during disease development, or is inherent. We investigated this question in a cohort of(More)
BACKGROUND High genetic risk (HR) of atopy among unstratified populations of infants is associated with attenuated IFN-gamma responses. However, the role of IFN-gamma in progression from HR status to active disease is less clear. OBJECTIVE To identify immune function markers in neonates with HR that are associated with positive atopic outcomes at 2 years.(More)