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OBJECTIVES To determine the association between maternal serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations during a critical window of fetal neurodevelopment and behavioral, emotional, and language outcomes of offspring. METHODS Serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations of 743 Caucasian women in Perth, Western Australia (32°S) were measured at 18 weeks pregnancy and(More)
We tested whether maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is related to the autism phenotype. Serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations of 929 women were measured at 18 weeks' pregnancy. The mothers of the three children with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder had 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations above the population mean. The offspring(More)
INTRODUCTION Although acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in early childhood worldwide, little progress has been made in their control and prophylaxis. Most studies have focused on hospitalized children or children from closed populations. It is essential that the viral etiology of these clinical diseases be(More)
BACKGROUND Severe lower respiratory infections (LRIs) and atopic sensitization have been identified as independent risk factors for asthma. OBJECTIVE The nature of potential interactions between these risk factors was the subject of this study. METHODS A community-based cohort of 198 children at high atopic risk was followed from birth to 5 years. All(More)
BACKGROUND The timing of allergen sensitization is controversial, with conflicting evidence suggesting transplacental priming versus exclusively postnatal priming. Resolution of this question is important in relation to rational design of allergy prevention strategies, particularly the issue of allergen avoidance during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE To elucidate(More)
BACKGROUND High genetic risk (HR) of atopy among unstratified populations of infants is associated with attenuated IFN-gamma responses. However, the role of IFN-gamma in progression from HR status to active disease is less clear. OBJECTIVE To identify immune function markers in neonates with HR that are associated with positive atopic outcomes at 2 years.(More)
The nasopharynx (NP) is a reservoir for microbes associated with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Lung inflammation resulting from ARIs during infancy is linked to asthma development. We examined the NP microbiome during the critical first year of life in a prospective cohort of 234 children, capturing both the viral and bacterial communities and(More)
Epidemiologic associations between viral lower respiratory infections (LRIs) and asthma in later childhood are well known. However, the question of whether such infections cause asthma or unmask asthma in a susceptible host has still not been settled. Most early evidence centered on the role of the respiratory syncytial virus; however, recent studies(More)
RATIONALE Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic lung disease. We have previously shown in an in vivo mouse model that maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with alterations in early life lung structure and function. However, there are limited data to support a relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency during the early stages of lung(More)
It is uncertain whether the vitamin D status of pregnant women influences bone mass of their children. Cohort studies have yielded conflicting results; none have examined offspring at skeletal maturity. This longitudinal, prospective study investigated the association between maternal vitamin D status and peak bone mass of offspring in 341 mother and(More)