Mercedes de Onís

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Maternal and child undernutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. In this paper, we present new analyses to estimate the effects of the risks related to measures of undernutrition, as well as to suboptimum breastfeeding practices on mortality and(More)
Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood obesity is associated with serious health problems and the risk of premature illness and death later in life. Monitoring related trends is important. OBJECTIVE The objective was to quantify the worldwide prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children on the basis of the new World Health Organization(More)
OBJECTIVE Our goal was to describe worldwide growth-faltering patterns by using the new World Health Organization (WHO) standards. METHODS We analyzed information available from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, comprising data from national anthropometric surveys from 54 countries. Anthropometric data comprise weight-for-age,(More)
The World Health Organization (WHO) convened an Expert Committee to reevaluate the use of anthropometry at different ages for assessing health, nutrition, and social wellbeing. The Committee's task included identifying reference data for anthropometric indexes when appropriate, and providing guidelines on how the data should be used. For fetal growth, the(More)
The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) is a community-based, multicountry project to develop new growth references for infants and young children. The design combines a longitudinal study from birth to 24 months with a cross-sectional study of children aged 18 to 71 months. The pooled sample from the six participating(More)
Nutritional status is the best global indicator of well-being in children. Although many surveys of children have been conducted since the 1970s, lack of comparability between them has made it difficult to monitor trends in child malnutrition. Cross-sectional data from 241 nationally representative surveys were analysed in a standard way to produce(More)
BACKGROUND Previous analyses derived the relative risk (RR) of dying as a result of low weight-for-age and calculated the proportion of child deaths worldwide attributable to underweight. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to examine whether the risk of dying because of underweight varies by cause of death and to estimate the fraction of deaths by cause(More)
Thorough training, continuous standardization, and close monitoring of the adherence to measurement procedures during data collection are essential for minimizing random error and bias in multicenter studies. Rigorous anthropometry and data collection protocols were used in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study to ensure high data quality. After the(More)