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Why are some places more entrepreneurial than others? We use Census Bureau data to study local determinants of manufacturing startups across cities and industries. Demographics have limited explanatory power. Overall levels of local customers and suppliers are only modestly important, but new entrants seem particularly drawn to areas with many smaller(More)
—We study entrepreneurship and growth through the lens of U.S. cities. Initial entrepreneurship correlates strongly with urban employment growth, but endogeneity bedevils interpretation. Chinitz (1961) hypothesized that coal mines near cities led to specialization in industries, like steel, with significant scale economies and that those big firms(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain shows an ongoing inflammatory condition and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories diminish the risk of suffering the neurologic disease. Cannabinoids are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents with therapeutic potential. We have studied the effects of prolonged oral administration of transgenic amyloid precursor protein(More)
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, "ecstasy") administration to mice produces relatively selective long-term neurotoxic damage to dopaminergic pathways. There is strong evidence indicating that the dopamine system plays a key role in the rewarding effects of ethanol and modulates ethanol intake. Using a two-bottle free-choice paradigm, we examined the(More)
In this Letter we describe the discovery of potent, selective, and orally active aminopurine JNK inhibitors. Improving the physico-chemical properties as well as increasing the potency and selectivity of a subseries with rat plasma exposure, led to the identification of four structurally diverse inhibitors. Differentiation based on PK profiles in multiple(More)
Hipericum perforatum is a well-known herbal for its antidepressant property. Recently, it has been shown to have nootropic effects against neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of chronic administration of two standardized extract of Hypericum perforatum SHP1 rich in hyperforin (6%) and SHP2 extract(More)
We examine the relationship between patent protection for pharmaceuticals and investment in development of new drugs. Patent protection has increased around the world as a consequence of the TRIPS Agreement, which specifies minimum levels of intellectual property protection for members of the World Trade Organization. It is generally argued that patents are(More)
A high-yield technique is described for the elaboration of single cell detritus (SCD) from Laminaria saccharina, based on the sequential action of C1H, enzymes (endoglucanases and cellulases) and 2 bacteria showing a high degree of cellobiotic, proteolytic, and alginolytic activity (CECT 5255 and CECT 5256). Over 85% of dried particles of L. saccharina were(More)
Working papers are in draft form. This working paper is distributed for purposes of comment and discussion only. It may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder. Copies of working papers are available from the author. Abstract We explore the impact of geographically bounded intra-firm spillovers (internal agglomeration economies) and(More)
To standardize the results obtained in PML/RAR alpha RT-PCR detection by laboratories of hospitals involved in the Spanish Program for Treatment of Hematological Malignancies (PETHEMA) LPA-96, designed for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), cDNA samples obtained by reverse transcription of RNA from bone marrow samples of patients with APL(More)