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BACKGROUND The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system is implicated in motivation and reward and may be involved in the development of alcoholism. METHODS We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to alcohol-related olfactory stimuli (AROS; odors of beer and whiskey) and non-alcohol-related(More)
The role of attention in speech comprehension is not well understood. We used fMRI to study the neural correlates of auditory word, pseudoword, and nonspeech (spectrally rotated speech) perception during a bimodal (auditory, visual) selective attention task. In three conditions, Attend Auditory (ignore visual), Ignore Auditory (attend visual), and Visual(More)
The mismatch negativity (MMN) increases in amplitude as the probability of deviant occurrence decreases. It is unclear whether the determining variable is sequential probability (i.e. the probability of a deviant within a number of standards) or temporal probability (i.e. the probability of a deviant within a period of time). Eight subjects heard a train of(More)
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a response to a deviant auditory stimulus that occurs infrequently in a sequence of otherwise repetitive, homogeneous standard auditory stimuli. The MMN is presumed automatic and independent of conscious awareness. Recording of the MMN during unconscious states may be problematic. The frequency content of the long-lasting(More)
This study examined the effects of sleep onset-the transition from a waking, conscious state to one of sleep and unconsciousness-on the mismatch negativity (MMN) following frequency deviants when a rapid rate of stimulus presentation is employed. The MMN is thought to reflect a brief-lasting sensory memory. Rapid rates of stimulus presentation should guard(More)
In the visual modality, perceptual demand on a goal-directed task has been shown to modulate the extent to which irrelevant information can be disregarded at a sensory-perceptual stage of processing. In the auditory modality, the effect of perceptual demand on neural representations of task-irrelevant sounds is unclear. We compared simultaneous ERPs and(More)
Modulation of selective attention appears to be under the guidance of a cluster of distinct task-control networks, the frontroparietal (FPN) and cingulo-opercular (CON). Yet, their role in mediating the relationship between task perceptual load and presence/absence of distraction in the auditory modality is unclear. Here, we examined this interaction using(More)
Two experiments were run to determine the effects of addition or removal of a stimulus feature on mismatch negativity (MMN). In the first experiment, a deviant stimulus was constructed by adding a click to a white noise standard stimulus. In the second experiment, the deviant was constructed by subtracting the click from the standard. In different(More)
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is thought to reflect the outcome of a system responsible for the detection of change in an otherwise repetitive, homogenous acoustic environment. This process depends on the storage and maintenance of a sensory representation of the frequently presented stimulus to which the deviant stimulus is compared. Few studies have been(More)
Whether and how working memory disrupts or alters auditory selective attention is unclear. We compared simultaneous event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses associated with task-irrelevant sounds across high and low working memory load in a dichotic-listening paradigm. Participants performed n-back tasks(More)