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We propose that explicit vision advances in reverse hierarchical direction, as shown for perceptual learning. Processing along the feedforward hierarchy of areas, leading to increasingly complex representations, is automatic and implicit, while conscious perception begins at the hierarchy's top, gradually returning downward as needed. Thus, our initial(More)
Perceptual learning can be defined as practice-induced improvement in the ability to perform specific perceptual tasks. We previously proposed the Reverse Hierarchy Theory as a unifying concept that links behavioral findings of visual learning with physiological and anatomical data. Essentially, it asserts that learning is a top-down guided process, which(More)
Revealing the relationships between perceptual representations in the brain and mechanisms of adult perceptual learning is of great importance, potentially leading to significantly improved training techniques both for improving skills in the general population and for ameliorating deficits in special populations. In this review, we summarize the essentials(More)
The magnocellular theory is a prominent, albeit controversial view asserting that many reading disabled (RD) individuals suffer from a specific impairment within the visual magnocellular pathway. In order to assess the validity of this theory we tested its two basic predictions. The first is that a subpopulation of RD subjects will show impaired performance(More)
BACKGROUND The relationships between auditory processing and reading-related skills remain poorly understood despite intensive research. Here we focus on the potential role of musical experience as a confounding factor. Specifically we ask whether the pattern of correlations between auditory and reading related skills differ between children with different(More)
We investigated the effect of task difficulty on the dynamics of auditory cortical responses. Whole-scalp magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals were recorded while subjects performed a same/different frequency discrimination task on equiprobable tone pairs applied in blocks of five, which were separated by a 10 s intertrial interval. Task difficulty was(More)
Auditory information is processed in a fine-to-crude hierarchical scheme, from low-level acoustic information to high-level abstract representations, such as phonological labels. We now ask whether fine acoustic information, which is not retained at high levels, can still be used to extract speech from noise. Previous theories suggested either full(More)
In a large subgroup of dyslexic individuals (D-LDs), reading difficulties are part of a broader learning and language disability. Recent studies indicate that D-LDs perform poorly in many psychoacoustic tasks compared with individuals with normal reading ability. We found that D-LDs perform as well as normal readers in speech perception in noise and in a(More)
This paper provides a selective review of data on phonology, audition, vision, and learning abilities in developmental dyslexia, with a specific focus on patterns of normal alongside poor performance. Indeed we highlight the difficulties of interpreting poor performance, and we criticize theories of dyslexia that are exclusively suited to explaining poor(More)