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Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory transmission is an important candidate cellular mechanism for the storage of memories in the mammalian brain. The subcellular phenomena that underlie the persistent increase in synaptic strength, however, are incompletely understood. A potentially powerful method to detect a presynaptic increase in glutamate(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are neuronal survival molecules which utilize the Trk family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Using double-label in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that mRNAs for BDNF and its high-affinity receptor TrkB are coexpressed in hippocampal and cortical neurons. Also, a large number of neurons(More)
The specific identity of neuronal precursors within the embryonic brain is, at present, not clear. Here we show that cultures with glial characteristics derived from the embryonic mouse or human lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) can be expanded over many passages and maintain their glial identity. Interestingly, removal of serum and EGF from the culture(More)
Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ), which gives rise to new neurons in the olfactory bulb, continues throughout life but declines with increasing age. Little is known about how aging affects the intrinsic properties of the neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) in SVZ and the functional characteristics of their neuronal progeny. Here, we have(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptors are implicated in several neuropathological conditions including epilepsy. As a model of complex partial seizures, rapid hippocampal kindling was chosen to investigate changes in the expression of messenger RNAs encoding the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunits NR1, NR2A and NR2B both during and in the period immediately(More)
Neuronal apoptosis was observed in the rat dentate gyrus in two experimental models of human limbic epilepsy. Five hours after one hippocampal kindling stimulation, a marked increase of in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of fragmented DNA was observed in nuclei located within and on the hilar border of the(More)
Epileptic, hypoglycaemic, ischaemic and traumatic insults to the brain induce marked changes of gene expression for the neurotrophins, nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, and their high-affinity receptors, TrkB and TrkC, in cortical and hippocampal neurones. Release of glutamate and influx of Ca2+ are the most(More)
Neural progenitors in the adult dentate gyrus continuously produce new functional granule cells. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to explore whether a pathological environment influences synaptic properties of new granule cells labeled with a GFP-retroviral vector. Rats were exposed to a physiological stimulus, i.e., running, or a brain(More)
Kindling is an animal model of epilepsy in which repeated electrical stimulations lead to progressive and permanent amplification of seizure activity, culminating in generalized convulsions. Each brief period of seizure activity during kindling epileptogenesis causes a marked, transient increase of the synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)(More)
Levels of mRNA for c-fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), TrkB, and TrkC were studied using in situ hybridization in the rat brain at different reperfusion times after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Short-term (15 min) MCAO, which does not cause neuronal death, induced elevated(More)