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Several studies have demonstrated that cortical inhibition (CI) can be recorded by paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). However, recording CI from other cortical regions that are more closely associated with the pathophysiology of some neurological and psychiatric disorders (eg,(More)
Cortical inhibition (CI) is measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electromyography (EMG) through long-interval CI (LICI) and cortical silent period (CSP) paradigms. Recently, we illustrated that LICI can be measured from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) through combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). We further(More)
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. In this regard, the DLPFC has been targeted in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies as a form of treatment to those patients who are resistant to medications. The(More)
Brain oscillations are increasingly used for understanding complex psychiatric disorders. Gamma (30-50Hz) oscillations have warranted special attention due to their omnipresence in cognitive tasks. For patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), a disease associated with poor cognition, abnormal gamma oscillations have been reported in many experimental paradigms.(More)
Gamma (gamma)-oscillations (30-50 Hz) represent important electrophysiological measures, which are generated through the execution of higher order cognitive tasks (eg, working memory) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). By contrast, cortical inhibition (CI) refers to a neurophysiological process in which GABAergic inhibitory interneurons(More)
Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have deficits in cortical inhibition. Through the combination of interleaved transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography, we have recently reported on methods in which cortical inhibition can be measured from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a cortical(More)
Neuronal oscillations in the gamma (gamma) frequency range (30-50 Hz) have been associated with cognition. Working memory (WM), a cognitive task involving the on-line maintenance and manipulation of information, elicits increases in gamma oscillations with greater cognitive demand, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The generation(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as(More)
BACKGROUND The corpus callosum, the main interhemispheric connection in the brain, may serve to preserve functional asymmetry between homologous cortical regions. METHODS To test this hypothesis, 30 healthy adult subjects underwent combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-electroencephalography procedures. Nineteen of these subjects also completed(More)
BACKGROUND Working memory represents a core cognitive domain that is impaired in schizophrenia for which there are currently no satisfactory treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeted over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has been shown to modulate neurophysiological mechanisms linked to working memory in schizophrenia and(More)