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Alum (aluminum hydroxide) is the most widely used adjuvant in human vaccines, but the mechanism of its adjuvanticity remains unknown. In vitro studies showed no stimulatory effects on dendritic cells (DCs). In the absence of adjuvant, Ag was taken up by lymph node (LN)-resident DCs that acquired soluble Ag via afferent lymphatics, whereas after injection of(More)
Adjuvants are vaccine additives that stimulate the immune system without having any specific antigenic effect of itself. In this study we show that alum adjuvant induces the release of IL-1beta from macrophages and dendritic cells and that this is abrogated in cells lacking various NALP3 inflammasome components. The NALP3 inflammasome is also required in(More)
Extracellular ATP serves as a danger signal to alert the immune system of tissue damage by acting on P2X or P2Y receptors. Here we show that allergen challenge causes acute accumulation of ATP in the airways of asthmatic subjects and mice with experimentally induced asthma. All the cardinal features of asthma, including eosinophilic airway inflammation, Th2(More)
Although deposition of uric acid (UA) crystals is known as the cause of gout, it is unclear whether UA plays a role in other inflammatory diseases. We here have shown that UA is released in the airways of allergen-challenged asthmatic patients and mice, where it was necessary for mounting T helper 2 (Th2) cell immunity, airway eosinophilia, and bronchial(More)
Allergic asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and hyperreactivity and is thought to be mediated by an adaptive T helper-2 (Th2) cell-type immune response. Here, we demonstrate that type 2 pulmonary innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) significantly contribute to production of the key cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in experimental asthma. In naive mice,(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature cells that accumulates in tumour-bearing hosts. These cells are induced by tumour-derived factors (e.g. prostaglandins) and have a critical role in immune suppression. MDSC suppress T and NK cell function via increased expression of arginase I and production of reactive(More)
Airway DCs play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, and interfering with their function could constitute a novel form of therapy. The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist FTY720 is an oral immunosuppressant that retains lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen, thus preventing lymphocyte migration to inflammatory sites. The accompanying(More)
Clinical immunotherapy trials like dendritic cell-based vaccinations are hampered by the tumor's offensive repertoire that suppresses the incoming effector cells. Regulatory T cells are instrumental in suppressing the function of cytotoxic T cells. We studied the effect of low-dose cyclophosphamide on the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and(More)
Airway inflammation in allergic asthma reflects a threshold response of the innate immune system, including group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), followed by an adaptive Th2 cell-mediated response. Transcription factor Gata3 is essential for differentiation of both Th2 cells and ILC2. We investigated the effects of enforced Gata3 expression in T cells and(More)
Inhalation of iloprost, a stable prostacyclin (PGI(2)) analog, is a well-accepted and safe treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Although iloprost mainly acts as a vasodilator by binding to the I prostanoid (IP) receptor, recent evidence suggests that signaling via this receptor also has antiinflammatory effects through unclear mechanisms. Here we(More)