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Multiple distinct memory B-cell subsets have been identified in humans, but it remains unclear how their phenotypic diversity corresponds to the type of responses from which they originate. Especially, the contribution of germinal center-independent responses in humans remains controversial. We defined 6 memory B-cell subsets based on their(More)
BACKGROUND The CD19 protein forms a complex with CD21, CD81, and CD225 in the membrane of mature B cells. Together with the B-cell antigen receptor, this complex signals the B cell to decrease its threshold for activation by the antigen. METHODS We evaluated four patients from two unrelated families who had increased susceptibility to infection,(More)
The contribution of proliferation to B lymphocyte homeostasis and antigen responses is largely unknown. We quantified the replication history of mouse and human B lymphocyte subsets by calculating the ratio between genomic coding joints and signal joints on kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) of the IGK-deleting rearrangement. This approach(More)
Antibody deficiencies constitute the largest group of symptomatic primary immunodeficiency diseases. In several patients, mutations in CD19 have been found to underlie disease, demonstrating the critical role for the protein encoded by this gene in antibody responses; CD19 functions in a complex with CD21, CD81, and CD225 to signal with the B cell receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with Down syndrome carry immunologic defects, as evidenced by the increased risks for autoimmune diseases, hematologic malignancies, and respiratory tract infections. Moreover, the low numbers of circulating B cells suggest impaired humoral immunity. OBJECTIVE We sought to study how immunodeficiency in patients with Down syndrome(More)
OBJECTIVES Persistent viral infections have been implicated in the etiology of autoimmune diseases in adulthood, but it is not known whether herpesviruses are associated with the development of celiac disease autoimmunity in childhood. We assessed whether herpesvirus infections are associated with transglutaminase type 2 antibody (TG2A) concentrations in(More)
The vast majority of patients suffering from a primary immunodeficiency (PID) have defects in their T- and/or B-cell compartments. Despite advances in molecular diagnostics, in many patients no underlying genetic defect has been identified. B- and T-lymphocytes are unique in their ability to create a receptor by genomic rearrangement of their antigen(More)
Most genetic disruptions underlying human disease are microlesions, whereas gross lesions are rare with gross deletions being most frequently found (6%). Similar observations have been made in primary immunodeficiency genes, such as BTK, but for unknown reasons the IGHM and DCLRE1C (Artemis) gene defects frequently represent gross deletions ( approximately(More)
Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is the most prevalent form of primary idiopathic hypogammaglobulinemia. Identification of genetic defects in CVID is hampered by clinical and immunologic heterogeneity. By flow cytometric immunophenotyping and cell sorting of peripheral B-cell subsets of 37 CVID patients, we studied the B-cell compartment at(More)