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BACKGROUND The heme acquisition machinery in Streptococcus pyogenes is believed to consist of the surface proteins, Shr and Shp, and heme-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter HtsABC. Shp has been shown to rapidly transfer its heme to the lipoprotein component, HtsA, of HtsABC. The function of Shr and the heme source of Shp have not been established. (More)
The innate immune system is the first line of host defense against invading organisms. Thus, pathogens have developed virulence mechanisms to evade the innate immune system. Here, we report a novel means for inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by Group A Streptococcus (GAS). Deletion of the secreted esterase gene (designated sse) in M1T1 GAS strains with(More)
BACKGROUND The Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A Streptococcus (GAS) genome encodes three ABC transporters, namely, FtsABCD, MtsABC, and HtsABC, which share homology with iron transporters. MtsABC and HtsABC are believed to take up ferric (Fe3+) and manganese ions and heme, respectively, while the specificity of FtsABCD is unknown. RESULTS Recombinant(More)
DNA damage response (DDR) is an intrinsic barrier of cell to tumorigenesis initiated by genotoxic agents. However, the mechanisms underlying the DDR are not completely understood despite of extensive investigation. Recently, we have reported that ectopic expression of germline stem cell gene PIWIL2 is associated with tumor stem cell development, although(More)
BACKGROUND Heme is a preferred iron source of bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is a bacterial pathogen that causes strangles in horses. Whether S. equi has a heme acquisition transporter is unknown. RESULTS An S. equi genome database was blasted with the heme binding proteins Shp and HtsA of Streptococcus pyogenes, and found that S.(More)
The M3 Serotype of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is one of the three most frequent serotypes associated with severe invasive GAS infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, in the United States and other industrialized countries. The basis for this association and hypervirulence of invasive serotype M3 GAS is not fully understood. In this study, the sequenced(More)
This study aims at evaluating the importance of the two-component regulatory system VicRK to virulence of the horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and the potential of a vicK mutant as a live vaccine candidate using mouse infection models. The vicK gene was deleted by gene replacement. The DeltavicK mutant is attenuated in virulence in both(More)
The hemoglobin receptor IsdB rapidly acquires heme from methemoglobin (metHb) in the heme acquisition pathway of Staphylococcus aureus. IsdB consists of N-terminal segment (NS), NEAT1 (N1), middle (MD), and heme binding NEAT2 (N2) domains, and C-terminal segment (CS). This study aims to elucidate the roles of these domains or segments in the metHb/IsdB(More)
The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus acquires heme iron from hemoglobin (Hb) via the action of a series of iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. The cell wall anchored IsdB protein is recognized as the predominant Hb receptor, and is comprised of two NEAr transporter (NEAT) domains that act in concert to bind, extract, and transfer heme(More)
The heme acquisition machinery in Group A Streptococcus (GAS) consists of the surface proteins Shr and Shp and ATP-binding cassette transporter HtsABC. Shp cannot directly acquire heme from methemoglobin (metHb) but directly transfers its heme to HtsA. It has not been previously determined whether Shr directly relays heme from metHb to Shp. Thus, the(More)