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The Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR, www.ViPRbrc.org) is an integrated repository of data and analysis tools for multiple virus families, supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRC) program. ViPR contains information for human pathogenic viruses belonging to the(More)
Genetic drift of influenza virus genomic sequences occurs through the combined effects of sequence alterations introduced by a low-fidelity polymerase and the varying selective pressures experienced as the virus migrates through different host environments. While traditional phylogenetic analysis is useful in tracking the evolutionary heritage of these(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding of how transcription factors are involved in lymphocyte development still remains a challenge. It has been shown that Egr-2 deficiency results in impaired NKT cell development and defective positive selection of T cells. Here we investigated the development of T, B and NKT cells in Egr-2 transgenic mice and the roles in the(More)
Lymphocytes provide optimal responses against pathogens with minimal inflammatory pathology. However, the intrinsic mechanisms regulating these responses are unknown. Here, we report that deletion of both transcription factors Egr2 and Egr3 in lymphocytes resulted in a lethal autoimmune syndrome with excessive serum proinflammatory cytokines but also(More)
Peptide selectivity is a feature of inhibitory receptors for MHC class I expressed by natural killer (NK) cells. CD94-NKG2A operates in tandem with the polymorphic killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR) and Ly49 systems to inhibit NK cells. However, the benefits of having two distinct inhibitory receptor-ligand systems are not clear. We show that noninhibitory(More)
UNLABELLED Within the polyprotein encoded by hepatitis C virus (HCV), the minimum components required for viral RNA replication lie in the NS3-5B region, while virion assembly requires expression of all virus components. Here, we have employed complementation systems to examine the role that HCV polyprotein precursors play in RNA replication and virion(More)
Although matured DC are capable of inducing effective primary and secondary immune responses in vivo, it is difficult to control the maturation and antigen loading in vitro. In this study, we show that ER-enriched microsomal membranes (microsomes) isolated from DC contain more peptide-receptive MHC I and II molecules than, and a similar level of(More)
Impaired function of virus-specific T cells resulting from virus persistence is one of the major mechanisms underlying the development of chronic hepatitis B viral infection. Previously, we found that IL-2 can restore the effector function of T cells rendered tolerant by Ag persistence. However, systemic administration of IL-2 induces organ pathology and(More)
Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fluorescence-based single-cell experimental technology that is routinely applied in biomedical research for identifying cellular biomarkers of normal physiological responses and abnormal disease states. While many computational methods have been developed that focus on identifying cell populations in individual FCM samples, very(More)
Escherichia coli K12f-pACLYC has a high capability for growth and lycopene production when using fructose as carbon source and the transcription of genes involved was compared in glucose-grown and fructose-grown cells. Escherichia coli K12f-pACLYC was grown on 10 g fructose l−1 and reached 4.6 g DCW l−1 with lycopene at 192 mg g DCW−1, values that are(More)