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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease and to assess whether cigarette smoking influences the association. DESIGN Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in drinking water from wells and urine. SETTING General population in Araihazar, Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS 11,746 men(More)
The relationship between intermembrane spacing, adhesion efficiency, and lateral organization of adhesion receptors has not been established for any adhesion system. We have utilized the CD2 ligand CD48 with two (wild type CD48 (CD48-WT)), four (CD48-CD2), or five (CD48-CD22) Ig-like domains. CD48-WT was 10-fold more efficient in mediating adhesion than(More)
BACKGROUND Few prospective studies have evaluated the influence of arsenic methylation capacity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the association of arsenic exposure from drinking water and arsenic methylation capacity with CVD risk. METHOD We conducted a case-cohort study of 369 incident fatal and nonfatal cases of CVD,(More)
Short-lived TCR microclusters and a longer-lived protein kinase Ctheta-focusing central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) have been defined in model immunological synapses (IS). In different model systems, CD28-mediated costimulatory interactions have been detected in microclusters, the cSMAC, or segregated from the TCR forming multiple distinct(More)
A promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy is to disrupt key pathways regulating immune tolerance, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). However, the determinants of response to anti-CTLA-4 mAb treatment remain incompletely understood. In murine models, anti-CTLA-4 mAbs alone fail to induce effective immune responses to poorly(More)
The binding of costimulatory ligand CD80 to CD28 or CTLA-4 on T cells plays an important role in the regulation of the T cell response. We have examined the role of the cytoplasmic domain of CD80 in murine T cell costimulation and its organization in the immunological synapse (IS). Removal of CD80 cytoplasmic tail decreased its effectiveness in(More)
BACKGROUND Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an IL7-like cytokine produced by bronchial epithelial cells is upregulated in asthma and induces dendritic cell maturation supporting a Th2 response. Environmental pollutants, including tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust particles upregulate TSLP suggesting that TSLP may be an interface between environmental(More)
RATIONALE Identification and characterization of asthma phenotypes are challenging due to disease complexity and heterogeneity. The Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) used unsupervised cluster analysis to define 5 phenotypically distinct asthma clusters that they replicated using 3 variables in a simplified algorithm. We evaluated whether this simplified(More)
Prospective epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that levels of circulating androgens in postmenopausal women are positively associated with breast cancer risk. However, data in premenopausal women are limited. A case-control study nested within the New York University Women's Health Study was conducted. A total of 356 cases (276 invasive and 80 in(More)
Indirect evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies suggests that prolactin may be involved in ovarian cancer development. However, the relationship between circulating prolactin levels and risk of ovarian cancer is unknown. We conducted a nested case–control study of 230 cases and 432 individually matched controls within three prospective(More)