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Machine learning algorithms such as genetic programming (GP) can evolve biased classifiers when data sets are unbalanced. Data sets are unbalanced when at least one class is represented by only a small number of training examples (called the minority class) while other classes make up the majority. In this scenario, classifiers can have good accuracy on the(More)
The crossover operator has been considered "the centre of the storm" in genetic programming (GP). However, many existing GP approaches to object recognition suggest that the standard GP crossover is not sufficiently powerful in producing good child programs due to the totally random choice of the crossover points. To deal with this problem, this paper(More)
Classification problems often have a large number of features in the data sets, but not all of them are useful for classification. Irrelevant and redundant features may even reduce the performance. Feature selection aims to choose a small number of relevant features to achieve similar or even better classification performance than using all features. It has(More)
This paper describes a domain-independent approach to the use of genetic programming for object detection problems in which the locations of small objects of multiple classes in large images must be found. The evolved program is scanned over the large images to locate the objects of interest. The paper develops three terminal sets based on(More)
To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution(More)
This paper describes a new approach to the use of Gaussian distribution in genetic programming (GP) for multiclass object classification problems. Instead of using predefined multiple thresholds to form different regions in the program output space for different classes, this approach uses probabilities of different classes, derived from Gaussian(More)