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Calorie restriction has been regarded as the only experimental regimen that can effectively lengthen lifespan in various animal models, but the actual mechanism remains controversial. The gut microbiota has been shown to have a pivotal role in host health, and its structure is mostly shaped by diet. Here we show that life-long calorie restriction on both(More)
Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet(More)
Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics(More)
Structural profiling of healthy human gut microbiota across heterogeneous populations is necessary for benchmarking and characterizing the potential ecosystem services provided by particular gut symbionts for maintaining the health of their hosts. Here we performed a large structural survey of fecal microbiota in 314 healthy young adults, covering 20 rural(More)
UNLABELLED Gut microbiota has been implicated as a pivotal contributing factor in diet-related obesity; however, its role in development of disease phenotypes in human genetic obesity such as Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) remains elusive. In this hospitalized intervention trial with PWS (n = 17) and simple obesity (n = 21) children, a diet rich in(More)
This study developed a new statistical strategy for analyzing clone library data to observe whether there is a defined pattern in structural responses of gut microbiota to environmental perturbations. A large clone library of genus Bacteroides was constructed with fecal samples for each subject in rotavirus-infected (Group R) and healthy children (Group H).(More)
The use of classification trees for modeling and predicting the passage of molecules through the blood-brain barrier was evaluated. The models were built and evaluated using a data set of 147 molecules extracted from the literature. In the first step, single classification trees were built and evaluated for their predictive abilities. In the second step,(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is an important factor in mediating the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes. Metformin and berberine, two clinically effective drugs for treating diabetes, have recently been shown to exert their actions through modulating the gut microbiota. In this study, we(More)
UNLABELLED The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears. It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes. To find out whether this endangered mammalian species, like other herbivores, has successfully developed a gut microbiota adapted to(More)
Periodontitis is a highly prevalent polymicrobial disease worldwide, yet the synergistic pattern of the multiple oral pathogens involved is still poorly characterized. Here, saliva, supragingival and subgingival plaque samples from periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy volunteers were collected and profiled with 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.(More)