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BACKGROUND Tumorigenic breast cancer cells that express high levels of CD44 and low or undetectable levels of CD24 (CD44(>)/CD24(>/low)) may be resistant to chemotherapy and therefore responsible for cancer relapse. These tumorigenic cancer cells can be isolated from breast cancer biopsies and propagated as mammospheres in vitro. In this study, we aimed to(More)
The hedgehog signaling network regulates pattern formation, proliferation, cell fate and stem/progenitor cell self-renewal in many organs. Altered hedgehog signaling is implicated in 20-25% of all cancers, including breast cancer. We demonstrated previously that heterozygous disruption of the gene encoding the patched-1 (PTCH1) hedgehog receptor, a negative(More)
T-cell immunotherapy that takes advantage of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-stimulated immunity has the potential to fill an important niche in targeted therapy for EBV-related cancers. To address questions of long-term efficacy, safety, and practicality, we studied 114 patients who had received infusions of EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) at 3(More)
PURPOSE Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or activating mutations of phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase (PIK3CA) may be associated with trastuzumab resistance. Trastuzumab, the humanized human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, and lapatinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both(More)
Altered hedgehog signaling is implicated in the development of approximately 20–25% of all cancers, especially those of soft tissues. Genetic evidence in mice as well as immunolocalization studies in human breast cancer specimens suggest that deregulated hedgehog signaling may contribute to breast cancer development. Indeed, two recent studies demonstrated(More)
PURPOSE The outcome for patients with metastatic or recurrent sarcoma remains poor. Adoptive therapy with tumor-directed T cells is an attractive therapeutic option but has never been evaluated in sarcoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a phase I/II clinical study in which patients with recurrent/refractory human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(More)
Breast cancer research is hampered by difficulties in obtaining and studying primary human breast tissue, and by the lack of in vivo preclinical models that reflect patient tumor biology accurately. To overcome these limitations, we propagated a cohort of human breast tumors grown in the epithelium-free mammary fat pad of severe combined immunodeficient(More)
Outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remain poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting interleukin (IL)-13Rα2, epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has shown promise for the(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer metastatic to the pancreas from other primary sites is uncommon, and it has been treated with an aggressive surgical approach in fit patients when the primary tumor is controlled and the pancreas is the only site of metastatic disease. The value of pancreatic resection in this setting is unclear. The purpose of this study was to review(More)
We generated MHC-independent chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) directed to the GD2 antigen expressed by neuroblastoma tumor cells and treated patients with this disease. Two distinguishable forms of this CAR were expressed in EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (EBV-CTLs) and activated T cells (ATCs). We have previously shown that EBV-CTLs expressing(More)