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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in 2002 to 2003 in southern China. The origin of its etiological agent, the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), remains elusive. Here we report that species of bats are a natural host of coronaviruses closely related to those responsible for the SARS outbreak. These viruses, termed SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs),(More)
Error control coding can be used over free-space optical (FSO) links to mitigate turbulence-induced fading. In this paper, we derive error performance bounds for coded FSO communication systems operating over atmospheric turbulence channels, considering the recently introduced gamma-gamma turbulence model. We derive a pairwise error probability (PEP)(More)
Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously(More)
Although the ability to model and infer Attacker Intent, Objectives and Strategies (AIOS) may dramatically advance the literature of risk assessment, harm prediction, and predictive or proactive cyber defense, existing AIOS inference techniques are ad hoc and system or application specific. In this paper, we present a general incentive-based method to model(More)
First discovered in the early 1950s, reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were not associated with any known disease, and hence named orphan viruses. Recently, our group reported the isolation of the Melaka virus from a patient with acute respiratory disease and provided data suggesting that this new orthoreovirus is capable of human-to-human(More)
Bats are increasingly being recognized as important reservoir hosts for a large number of viruses, some of them can be highly virulent when they infect human and livestock animals. Among the new bat zoonotic viruses discovered in recent years, several reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were found to be able to cause acute respiratory infections(More)
Protein kinase A (PKA) play a critical role in maintaining the meiotic arrest. However, the steps downstream of PKA remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulation of meiotic resumption by PKA/Cdc25B pathway in mouse oocytes. Injection of mRNA coding for Cdc25b-S321A had a more potent maturation-inducing ability than Cdc25b-WT. When(More)
The paper evaluates the relative merits of amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF), the two basic modes of cooperative communications, in practical systems. Specifically, the paper considers the case where the two user channels are slow fading with similar channel qualities and the inter-user channel is some 10 dB better. Through evaluation of(More)
A novel method using hybrid geometric and appearance features of the difference between the neutral and fully expressive facial expression images is proposed for facial expression recognition in this paper. The difference tends to emphasize the facial parts that are changed from the neutral to expressive face and eliminate in that way the identity of the(More)