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By using a cre-lox conditional knockout strategy, we report here the generation of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. Phenotype analysis shows that ARKO male mice have a female-like appearance and body weight. Their testes are 80% smaller and serum testosterone concentrations are lower than in wild-type (wt) mice. Spermatogenesis is arrested at(More)
The roles of the androgen receptor (AR) in female fertility and ovarian function remain largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of female mice lacking AR (AR(-/-)) and the resulting influences on the reproductive system. Female AR(-/-) mice appear normal but show longer estrous cycles and reduced fertility. The ovaries from sexually mature AR(-/-)(More)
BACKGROUND Males have a higher incidence of bladder cancer than females, but the reason remains unknown. Unlike prostate cancer, human bladder cancer is not generally considered to be dependent on hormone activity. We investigated the possible involvement of androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) in bladder cancer. METHODS We used(More)
Mast cell development is a complex process that results in the appearance of phenotypically distinct populations of mast cells in different anatomical sites. Mice homozygous for mutations at the W or S1 locus exhibit several phenotypic abnormalities, including a virtual absence of mast cells in all organs and tissues. Recent work indicates that W encodes(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) can influence mast cell development and function in murine rodents by interacting with its receptors on mast cells. We now report the identification of mRNA transcripts of full-length tyrosine kinase-containing trkA, trkB, and trkC neurotrophin receptor genes in HMC-1 human mast cell leukemia cells. Although HMC-1 cells lacked p75(More)
Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient (AR-/-) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the prepubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal end buds, as well as decreased lobuloalveolar development in adult females, and fewer milk-producing alveoli in the(More)
Estrogens have been linked to a higher female incidence of autoimmune diseases. The role of androgen and the androgen receptor (AR) in autoimmune diseases, however, remains unclear. Here we report that the lack of AR in B cells in different strains of mice, namely general AR knockout, B cell-specific AR knockout, and naturally occurring testicular(More)
Gender differences have been described in osteoporosis with females having a higher risk of osteoporosis than males. The differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into bone or fat is a critical step for osteoporosis. Here we demonstrated that loss of the androgen receptor (AR) in BMSCs suppressed osteogenesis but promoted adipogenesis. The(More)
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