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BACKGROUND Males have a higher incidence of bladder cancer than females, but the reason remains unknown. Unlike prostate cancer, human bladder cancer is not generally considered to be dependent on hormone activity. We investigated the possible involvement of androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) in bladder cancer. METHODS We used(More)
The roles of the androgen receptor (AR) in female fertility and ovarian function remain largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of female mice lacking AR (AR(-/-)) and the resulting influences on the reproductive system. Female AR(-/-) mice appear normal but show longer estrous cycles and reduced fertility. The ovaries from sexually mature AR(-/-)(More)
Using a Cre-Lox conditional knockout strategy, we generated a germ cell-specific androgen receptor (AR) knockout mouse (G-AR(-/y)) with normal spermatogenesis. Sperm count and motility in epididymis from AR(-/y) mice are similar to that of WT (G-AR(+/y)) mice. Furthermore, fertility tests show there was no difference in fertility, and almost 100% of female(More)
Trehalose synthase (TS) from Thermus thermophilus (TtTS) is a thermostable enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of maltose into trehalose by intramolecular transglucosylation. It has a relatively higher thermophilicity and thermostability and a better conversion ratio for trehalose production than other known TSs from different sources at present. By amino(More)
Purpose: We investigated the prevalence of deletions in the azoospermic factor (AZF) region of chromosome Yq11 in Chinese men with infertility due to idiopathic azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. The DAZ gene cluster was also examined for mutations. Methods: Sixty-eight men with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia taking part in an intracytoplasmic(More)
By using a cre-lox conditional knockout strategy, we report here the generation of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. Phenotype analysis shows that ARKO male mice have a female-like appearance and body weight. Their testes are 80% smaller and serum testosterone concentrations are lower than in wild-type (wt) mice. Spermatogenesis is arrested at(More)
Phenotype analysis of female mice lacking androgen receptor (AR) deficient (AR-/-) indicates that the development of mammary glands is retarded with reduced ductal branching in the prepubertal stages, and fewer Cap cells in the terminal end buds, as well as decreased lobuloalveolar development in adult females, and fewer milk-producing alveoli in the(More)
The effects of IL-6 on prostate cancer cells are well documented yet remain controversial. Some reports suggested that IL-6 could promote prostate cancer cell growth, while others showed that IL-6 could repress prostate cancer cell growth. Here, we systemically examined various IL-6 signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells and found that IL-6 could go(More)
Purpose: We investigated whether the human oocyte maturational profile at the removal of cumulus/corona cells affects the fertilization rate and subsequent embryo quality after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Methods: A total of 1011 oocytes from 150 cycles was included in this retrospective analysis. Cumulus-free oocytes that were in prophase or(More)
A fusion gene that encoded a polypeptide of 1495 amino acids was constructed from the beta-amylase (BA) gene of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes and trehalose synthase (TS) gene of Thermus thermophilus. The fused gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and a recombinant bifunctional fusion protein with BA at the N-terminal (BATS) or C-terminal (TSBA) of(More)