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DNA damage response (DDR) is an intrinsic barrier of cell to tumorigenesis initiated by genotoxic agents. However, the mechanisms underlying the DDR are not completely understood despite of extensive investigation. Recently, we have reported that ectopic expression of germline stem cell gene PIWIL2 is associated with tumor stem cell development, although(More)
BACKGROUND Metformin is the first line of oral antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence has suggested that it is a potential anti-tumor drug. However, the mechanisms underlying inhibiting tumor development remain elusive, especially in bladder tumors. METHODS T24 and J82 cell lines were used as an in(More)
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