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BACKGROUND Mice that have defects in their low-threshold T-type calcium channel (T-channel) genes show altered pain behaviors. The changes in the ratio of nociceptive neurons and the burst firing property of reticular thalamic (RT) and ventroposterior (VP) neurons in Cav3.2 knockout (KO) mice were studied to test the involvement of thalamic T-channel and(More)
Evoked potential and ensemble neuronal activities were used to study the responses of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) to noxious CO(2) laser irradiation of the middle part of the tail in conscious behaving rats. The hypothesis that systemic morphine treatment preferentially attenuates the longer-latency laser-evoked cortical responses was also tested.(More)
Pain is a natural alarm that aids the body in avoiding potential danger and can also present as an important indicator in clinics. Infrared laser-evoked potentials can be used as an objective index to evaluate nociception. In animal studies, a short-pulse laser is crucial because it completes the stimulation before escape behavior. The objective of the(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on neuroimaging studies, the striatum is reported to be abnormal in size, but it is still not clear how they change during developmental stages. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are the commonly used animal model for ADHD. We(More)
The rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC), an opioid-responsive site, is essential for modulating nociception in rats. Our previous studies have shown that morphine suppressed long latency laser heat-evoked nociceptive responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (SmI). By contrast, morphine significantly attenuated both short and long latency responses(More)
Microwire array electrodes are important in multi-site, multiple single-unit recording experiments. A simple method is described herein for the construction of microwire arrays consisting of evenly spaced insulated microwires in either horizontal or vertical orientations. Several key steps in the fabrication of a good microwire array electrode are made(More)
Chronic single-unit recording in subcortical brain regions is increasingly important in neurophysiological studies. However, methods for long-term, stable recording of multiple single-units in deep brain regions and in dura-surrounded ganglion have not yet been established. In the present study, we propose a bundled microwire array design which is capable(More)
We herein introduce an automated three-dimensional (3D) locomotion tracking and pose reconstruction system for rodents with superior robustness, rapidity, reliability, resolution, simplicity, and cost. An off-the-shelf composite infrared (IR) range camera was adopted to grab high-resolution depth images (640×480×2048 pixels at 20Hz) in our system for(More)
Primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is a key area in the processing of nociceptor inputs to our consciousness. To clarify the columnar and laminar organization of SI for pain processing, we compared spatiotemporal changes in neuronal activities of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) of the rat in response to noxious laser heat stimulation applied to the(More)
Neuronal oscillations have been shown to contribute to the function of the cerebral cortex by coordinating the neuronal activities of distant cortical regions via a temporal synchronization of neuronal discharge patterns. This can occur regardless whether these regions are linked by cortico-cortical pathways or not. Less is known concerning the role of(More)